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Ecosystems

QuestionAnswer
What is a population? The group of organisms of the same species living in the same area
Where does a population live? In its habitat.
All populations are affected by __________________? All populations are affected by abiotic factors, like weather and water resources. They are also affected by biotic factors, like available food sources and human activities.
What are the measurable characteristics of a population? Density, distribution, and size.
What is population density? Population density is the number of individuals per unit area.
How are populations most commonly distributed? In a clumped pattern.
What are the distribution methods? Clumped, random, uniform
When does size (growth rate) of a population change? Any population changes when one or more of the following changes: birth rate, death rate, or rate of individuals joining the population (immigration) or leaving the population (emigration).
What needs to happen for the population to grow? If a population experiences equivalent immigration and emigration, and its birth rate exceeds its death rate.
What makes up a community? All the populations of organisms living together in an environment make up a community.
What affects the structure of a community? Climate, topography, available resources throughout the year, adaptive traits of organisms in the community, overall population size, and interactions among different species within the community.
What are biomes? Climax communities that have been put into groups based on their similarities and differences. Examples: temperate forest and coral reefs.
What makes up an ecosystem ? Organisms interacting with one another and with their physical surroundings make up an ecosystem.
What are the abiotic factors of an ecosystem? The abiotic factors of an ecosystem are the nonliving components, including water, climate, and soil.
What are the biotic factors of an ecosystem? The biotic factors are the living components and include all of the plants, animals, and other organisms.
True or False: All ecosystems are open systems with inputs, transfers, and outputs of energy and nutrients. True!
True or False: Ecosystems have a fixed size. False! Ecosystems have no fixed size.
Explain biodiversity. The variety of species that exist in an environment
What is a habitat? Where each species prefers to live.
What is a niche? The unique physical environment occupied, and functions performed by, a species. A new species will fill a need within the ecosystem.
What is competition? a relationship in which two or more individuals or species compete for the same resource
What is predation? a relationship in which one species, the predator, hunts another species, the prey
What is parasitism? a relationship in which one species (a parasite) benefits at the expense of the other species (a host)
What is commensalism? a relationship that directly benefits one species but does not greatly affect the other, if at all
What is mutualism? A relationship that directly benefits both species
What is intraspecific behaviors? Behaviors that involve interactions between members of the same species . Intraspecific behaviors can greatly increase the chances of survival and reproductive success for the individuals that engage in them.
How do producers obtain energy? Producers convert light energy into chemical energy to produce biomass from inorganic resources.
How do consumers obtain energy? Consumers obtain energy by eating other organisms.
What is a primary consumer? Any organism that eats only producers. (herbivores)
What is a secondary consumer? Secondary consumers obtain some or most of their energy by consuming primary consumers.
What are tertiary consumers? Tertiary consumers obtain energy by eating secondary consumers. All tertiary consumers are carnivorous.
What are detrivores? Detritivores consume detritus—dead organic matter or organic wastes for energy.
What is a food chain? A food chain is a linear representation of the directional flow of energy from one organism to another organism in an ecosystem.
What is a food web? A food web provides a more accurate view of the flow of energy in a community because it includes connections between food chains.
What are the trophic levels from least to greatest? Producers, primary consumers, secondary consumers, tertiary consumers
Explain succession. When communities are replaced over time by new communities.
What is primary succession? Primary succession occurs when communities form on a surface that was previously unoccupied by organisms.
What are pioneer species? The first species to colonize an area.
What is a climax community? A stable community.
What is secondary succession? One type of biological and ecological succession that involves the growth of plant life in an area that previously saw growth, but was destroyed for any reason. EX: flood or fire
What is a keystone species? A keystone species is one that has relatively low abundance but greatly influences community structure.
What is an exotic species? A species either deliberately or accidentally introduced to a range that it is not native to
What are the types of aquatic ecosystems? Freshwater and marine, depending on salinity levels.
What are disturbances? External factors that influence ecosystems. When this happens the process of succession is interrupted or the climax community is destroyed.
Created by: JustEmma