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Lecture 13

Vertebrates

TermDefinition
What structure did jaws evolve from? Gills.
What are the skeletons of skates, rays and shark made of? Cartilage.
Sharks have electroreceptors that function to: Detect weak electric currents from animals.
Sharks do not have swim bladders, so how do they maintain buoyancy? Large amounts of oil in liver.
What would happen if a hammerhead shark stopped swimming and why? It would drown because they need to push the water past their gills to breathe.
What structure helps bony fish float or sink in the water? Swim bladder.
What are three obstacles animals faced when evolving to move on to dry land? Dehydration, less support against gravity, sensory systems not adapted to air.
Three advantages for animals to evolve to move on to dry land. Plants available for food, more oxygen in air than water, no predators.
What animal is said to be the common ancestor for all land animals? The tiktaalik.
Frogs and salamanders are modern day amphibians and they breathe through their: Skin.
What are two reasons amphibians need to live near water? Must remain moist, eggs are hatched in water.
Three reasons why amniotes evolved to live on land completely: Tough, dry skin to prevent dehydration, amniotic egg that allows the egg to survive outside of water, semisolid waste allows an animal to conserve water.
Three characteristics of mammals: Have glandular skin covered in hair or fur, give birth to live young that feed on milk produced by their mother, endothermic - use body heat to maintain temperature.
Three characteristics of the clade reptilia: Dry, scaly, nonglandular skin without hair or fur, most lay eggs that can survive on land, none produce milk.
What are five examples of animals that are in the clade reptilia? Lizards, snakes, turtles, crocodiles, birds.
How do snakes regulate body temperature? Through behavior – get into sun to warm up and shade to cool down.
Can a turtle come out of its shell and live? No, because the shell is part of the skeleton.
What purpose (other than flight) do feathers serve for birds? Insulation.
What is the unusual characteristic of a marsupial? Baby continues to develop in a pouch on the mother.
How does a fetus get nourishment in placental animals? From placenta in the mother.
Alligators: Snout is wider than a crocodile's and are much darker than a crocodile.
Crocodiles: Snout is more narrow and V-shaped and they are lighter than an alligator.
Created by: bngrimes1995