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micro 125 test 2

What are the five steps of microbial characterization? inoculation, incubation, isolation, inspection, identification
What is inoculation? Introduction of an inoculum into media to culture microbes
What is media? Nutrients for the growth of microbes
What do we call the tiny amount of sample used to start a culture? inoculum
What is the difference between a mixed culture and a pure culture? Pure-Container grows only a single microorganism mixed- A container that holds two or more microorganisms
What four components must all media have? 1. carbon source 2. nitrogen source 3. ph buffer 4. sterility
What consistencies/textures can microbial media have? liquid semisolid solid
What material is used to make media solid? agar
In what situations would one choose each physical state of media? liquid- see biochemical reactions semisolid- motility solid- form colonies
What is the difference between chemically defined media aka synthetic media contain organic and inorganic compounds
What is general purpose media? grow microbes
What is enriched media and why is it used? complex organic substances such as blood, serum, hemoglobin or special growth factors
What are selective media? one or more agents that selectively inhibit the growth of a certain microbe or microbes but not others
What are reducing media? Contains a substance (sod. Thioglycollate or cystine) that absorbs oxygen or slows the penetration of oxygen in a medium
What supports for growth can an incubator provide? temp between 20 and 45 c atmospheric gases can be controlled ideal conditions for growth
How do we observe incubation? microbes multiply, visible growth
What is a colony? a macroscopic cluster of cell appearing on a solid medium arising from the multiplication of a single cell
Proper isolation yields what kind of culture? pure culture
Each isolated colony originates from the growth of _____________. single cells from other cells
What tools and techniques are necessary for proper isolation? 1. small number of cells 2. medium with firm surface 3. petri dish 4. inoculating tools
What are some possible ways to inspect and identify microbes? 1. appearance 2. biochemical testing 3. genetic and immunologic testing
why use reducing media? Imp for growing anaerobic bacteria
what is carbohydrate fermentation media? Contain sugars that can be fermented (converted to acids) and a pH indicator to show the reaction
why use carbohydrate fermentation media? to see if carbohydrate fermentation enzymes
what is transport media? to maintain and preserve specimens that need to be held for a period of time before clinical analysis or to sustain delicate species that die rapidly
why use transport media? to maintain and preserve microorganisms
what is assay media? to test the effectiveness of antimicrobial agents
what is enumeration media? to count the numbers of organisms in milk, water, food, soil ect
what is an inoculum small sample of microbes
types of media physical state chemical composition functions type (purpose)
liquid media is? To visualize biochemical reaction that shows microbial enzyme activity.
semisolid media is? To determine the motility of bacteria and to localize reaction to a specific site
solid media is? Provide firm surface on which cells can form discrete colonies
solid media also shows? enzyme activity (enzymes digest gelatin and liquefy it.
what is complex media? If at least one component of a given medium is not chemically defined, the medium belongs to complex category
complex media presents a rich mixture of nutirent
examples of complex media is extracts of animals, plants or yeast
why is purpose media used? contain mixture of nutrients that could support the growth of a variety of microbial life
why is selective media used? Imp in isolation of a specific microorganisms from samples containing dozens of different species microorganisms
what is differential media? Allow multiple types of microorganisms to grow but are designed to display visible differences in how they grow.
why use differential media? Visible differences include variations
What is an essential nutrient? Any substance that must be provided to an organism is called an essential nutrient
What is the macronutrients? large amounts and play roles in cell structure and metabolism. (C, H, O)
What is the difference between organic nutrients? contain carbon, hydrogen the products of living things.
what is micronutrient? Trace elements. small amounts. Involved in enzyme function and maintenance of protein structure
what is inorganic nutrients? simple molecule that containsatoms other than carbon and hydrogen.
What are the six elements that make up most of the organic molecules in microbes? chonps carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, phosphous, sulfur
What two terms describe microbes based on where they get their energy, phototrophs, chemotrophs
what is a phototrophs Photosynthesize
what is a chemotrophs? Gain energy from chemical compounds
What two terms describe microbes based on where they get their carbon, autotrophs (self feeder), heterotrops
what is an autotrophs? One that uses inorganic CO2 as its carbon source, depend on other living things
Which group encompasses most of the microbes that we will study? chemoheterotrophs
what is an heterotroph? obtains its carbon in an organic form Energy source
what are photoautotrophs? photosynthetic, produce for themselves and others, basis of most food chains, primary producers
photoautotrophs are? algae, plants, and some bacteria
what are chemoautotrophs? chemoorganic autotrophs, chemosutotrophs, lithoautotrophs
chemoorganic autotrophs are? Use organic compounds for energy and inorganic compounds as a carbon source
chemoautotrophs are? use inorganic energy sources
lithoautotrophs are? rely on inorganic minerals and do not require organic nutrients or sunlight
chemoheterotrophs are? carbon and energy from organic, process through respiration or fermentation
what are cardinal temp? Range of temperatures for the growth
what is a minimum temp? Lowest temperature that permits a microbe’s continued growth and metabolism
what is maximum temp Highest temp at which growth and metabolism can proceed
what is optimum temp? Range of temp between min and max, which promotes the fastest rate of growth and metabolism
most human pathogens grown at 30-40c
extreme thermophile are special because they do not die in boiling water 70c-130c.
thermoduric can survive sort expose to high temps
Which category do most human pathogens fall into? mesophile
microbes fall into three categories use o2 and detoxify it, nuse neither o2 nor detoxify it, do not use 02 but can detoxify it
aerobes can use o2 in their metabolism have enzzymes to process toxic o2
aerotolerant anaerobes do not use 02 but can survive and grow
which o2 pattern can the human body support aerobes
facultatives anaerobes do not require o2 for metabolism
microaerophiles are harmed by o2 and require small amount
obligate 02 microbes have to have o2 to survive
saprobes are free living microbes that feed on dead organisms
saprobes are also parasites
What is a typical pH range for bacterial growth? 6.5-7
What do we call microbes living at extreme pHs? extremophile
ph is the? degree of acidity and alkalinity of a solution
majority of organisms live at what ph level? 6-8
capnophiles grow best at higher co2 tensions
in hypotonic solutions cell swell
hypertonic solutions cell shrink
osmophiles live in habitates with high solute concentration
halophiles prefer high salt concentration
Which common human pathogen is a facultative halophile? staph aureus
What is the name for microbes that are adapted to high pressure environments? extremophiles, barophiles
what happens when these extremophiles or barophiles are removed from their environment. will rupture
barophiles are deep sea microbes
faculative halophiles are resistant to salt
radiation interferes with dna replication
mutualism is Mutually beneficial relationship
Many microbes that live on or in humans fall in this category mutualism
in commensalism one recieves benefit and the other neither harmed nor benefited
parasitism host microbes the are parasitic microbe with nutrients and a habitat
parasitism microbes are also known as pathogenic microbes
in mutualism the host gets ___ benefits and the commensal/dependent get ___ benefits +, +
in commensalism the host gets ___ benefits and the commensal/dependent get ___ benefits 0 +
in parasitism the host gets ___ benefits and the commensal/dependent get ___ benefits - +
anatagonism is an association between free living species that arises when members of a community compete
synergism is interrelationships between 2 or more free living organisms that benefit them
synergism are not necessary for survival
the participants of synergism cooperate to produce results that none can do it alone
antibiosis is the production of inhibitory compound such as antibiotics
biofilms are a perfect example of synergism
there are different ways to treat ___ involving ___ infections, biofilms
non symbolic relates to biofilms because of synergism
antibiosis and biofilms relate because biofilms make is harder for antibiosis because the antibiotics dont work as well
what is meant by microbial growth? growth in population size
Generation time is the The Time it takes to double in numbers
Generation time/ doubling time is Time required for a complete fission cycle
What is exponential growth An equation for size of population
Why is exponential growth not sustainable in a closed batch
Steps in binary fission 1. Parent cell enlarges duplicates chromosomes 2.central septum is formed (protein band) 3. 2 daughter calls form 4. Cell is considered divided when septum is complete.
How is viable plate count performed 1. Add sample to broth 2. Incubate 3. Broth is pulled 4. Samples played in solid media 5. Count colonies
Viable plate count to compare growth patterns
Lag phase is the ___ growth flat
During the lag phase it is called the flat growth due to Cells need to get use to environment, not multiplying at max rate
Exponential growth (logarithmic or log) phase is Increase geometrically Continue as long as nutrients and environment is good
Station art growth phase Cell birth and death is equal Cell division slows Depleted o2 and nutrients
Death phase Cells die cuz of buildup waste Slower growth rate
Relevance of the growth curve is 1.Effectiveness of antimicrobial agents 2. Stages of infection 3. Byoass using chemostats
Turbidometry is a tube of Clear solute becomes cloudy (turbid)
More cloudy greater the turbidity Larger the population
Genetic probing uses real time pcr
Coulter count is Automatic counting (electrical scans)
Why are viruses not alive? 1.non cellular 2. Reliant on host 3. DNA or rna
Viruses are not alive another word for them is Obligate intercelluar parasites
New classification of viruses is by Structure Chemical composition Genetics
What is required for viruses to reproduce. Must be in living host cell
Viruses compare to microbes by Smaller than bacteria
A fully formed virus that is able to establish an infection in a host cell is called a viron
New classification of viruses is by Structure Chemical composition Genetics
Virus capsized is almost made up of Repeating structural structures
Virus capsid+ core is Nucleocapsid
Virus capsid is made up of Protein shell
Virus capsid is control red from identical subunits called Capsomers
Capsomers are made out of Protein
Virsuses can be Helical Envelope Spike`
Viruses always have Dna/RNA inside protein shell
Viruses will sometimes have Envelopes
Virus envelope is when viruses are Release from host cell they take a piece of membrane
Envelope viruses are More flexible different shapes
enveloped viruses are those that bud from w.e membrane its attached too (cytoplasm, nucleus)`
Spikes are Naked and enveloped viruses contain protein on outer surface
Spike viruses spikes allow it to Dock with their host cell
During adoption phase (animal virus stage 1) the Virus docks with host cell, Host range, Tropisms
Penetration and uncoating is penetration (animal virus stage 2) by Endocytosis or fusion of envelope and membrane
In uncoating of a viruses Vacuole enzymes dissolve virus cover
When viruses is uncoated is released Nucleic acid
Synthesis stage (animal virus stage 3) is where new dna/rna and viral components are formed
dna viruses are replicated and assembled in the host cell nucleus
rna viruses are replicated and assembled in the cytoplasm
nonenveloped/ complex viruses are when cells lysis or rupture
Host range is Exact fit between host cell and proteins on viral capsid/ envelope
Tropisms are viruses that have Tissue specifications for certain cells in the body
chemical control has a complete range of efficacy
What are the major components of the cell? cell membrane, nucleus, cytoplasm
radiation phtotrops use visible light rays as energy source
cytopathic effects are when viruses damage host cell
examining cells for cytopathic effects are important because to diagnose viral infections
cytopathic effects happen because of the viruses ability to fuse cell membranes
Persistent infections accumulate damage from virus by cell death
provirus is when virus is incorporated into DNA of host
Chronic latent stage is that they periodically become activated under the influence of certain stimuli and syptoms
Ocogenic viruses/ oncoviruses can transform a host cell by 1 . increase growth rate 2. alter chromosomes 3. change cell surface 4. divide for indefinite period
some examples of ocogenic viruses/ oncoviruses are 1. papillomavirus (genital warts) 2. hepatitis b virus (liver cancer) 3. herpesviruses (Epstein-barr virus causes burkitt lymphoma)
Viruses have a basic structure which is a Protein shell surrounding nucleic acid
Host range is Exact fit between host cell and proteins on viral capsid/ envelope
Bacteriophages (phages) are viruses that infect bacteria
Bacteriophages (phages) have 2 life cycles and they are 1. lytic 2. lysogenic
Bacteriophages (phages) occurs because bacterial host cells were being eaten by parasites
Bacteriophages (phages) contains DNA and sometimes DNA and RNA
Lysogeny induction is when the virus lysogenic cell becomes activated and progresses directly to viral replication
lysogenic conversion is when a bacterium acquires a new trait from its temperate phage
Lysogeny is host chromosomes carries viral DNA
prions are infectious protein particles
prions have mental and physical effects
prions are called ___ in cows BSE
prions are called ____ in humans CJD
Prions resembles parkinsons disease
satellite viruses depend on other viruses for replication
satellite viruses infect cells that are already infected with other viruses
Viroids infect plants
viroids have naked strands of RNA
germicide and microbicide is chemical agents that kill microorganisms
sporicide is an agent capable of destroying bactericidial endospores
asepsis is any practice that prevents the entry of infectious agents into sterile tissue. prevents infection
antiseptics are applied directly to exposed body surfaces
in death of microbes Permanent loss of reproductive capability, even under optimum growth conditions
microbial control techniques targets the 1. cell wall 2. cell membrane 3. cellular synthesis (dna/ rna) 4. proteins
What are the least resistant microbes 1.enveloped virus 2. Most gram positive bacteria
The most resistant microbes are 1. Prions. 2. Bacterial endoscopes 3. Mycobacterium
cide is the capacity to kill
static is agent that prevents growth of bacteria
sepsis is growth of microorganism in the blood and other tissues
agents use to control microbes inside the body have a microbistatic effect
Elevated temp = Microbicidal
Lower temp (below minimum growth temp) = Microbistatic
vegetative cells that directly become exposed to normal rooms air and become dehydrated Dessication are
Lyophilization Combination of freezing and drying
Shortest length of time required to kill all test microbes at a specified temperature Thermal death time (TDT) –
Lowest temperature required to kill all microbes in sample in 10 mins Thermal death point (TDP) –
microorganisms and other cells in a viable state by a combination of freezing and drying Lyophilization) is used to preserve
boiling is limited to 100c
boiling takes ___ to kill pathogens 30 min
incineration is limited to metals and heat resistant glass materials
Coagulation and denaturation of proteins which quickly and permanently halts cellular metabolism moist heat
Dehydration and denaturation – Hight temps for dry heat dry heat
incineration is fast and effective
Pasteurization kills mostly vegetative pathogens
is technique in which heat is applied to liquids to kill infection and spoilage, while at the same time retaining the liquid’s favor and food value pasterurization
liquids to kill infection and spoilage, while at the same time retaining the liquid’s favor and food value heat resistant materials
ionizing radiation is gamma rays or xrays
ionizing radiation penetrates liquids solids gasses
gamma rays are the most penetrating
xrays are intermediate
cathode rays are less penetrating
the advantages of ionizing radiation is that it is speed, high penetrating power with absences of heat
non ionizing radiation is a powerful tool for destroying fungal cells and spores, bacterial vegetative cells, protozoa and viruses
filter sterilization uses a specialized filter on air or liquids
uv disinfection of air is effective in reducing postoperative infections
the limitation of filter sterilization are dont remove molecules that cause disease, impurities, toxins, doesnt kill anything
filtration is an efficent way to remove airborne contaminants
osmotic pressure is large amounts of salt or sugar
aqueous solutions is dissolved in water
tinctures is dissolved in alcohol or water alcohol mixtures
halogens are iodine and chlorine
aldehydes disrupts enzyme activity
aldehydes kills endospores and all other microbes
gas sterilization causes damaging to mucous membranesq
phenol is a carbolic acid
phenol disrupts cell walls, membranes, and inactivate enzymes
phenol sanitizes
chlorhexidine destroys membranes and denature protein
chlorhexiding works on most vegetative bacteria
alcohol disrupts cell membrane
detergents disrupts selective permeability- cell death
heavy metal compounds disrupt protein function
silver nitrate solutions are used for topical germicides and ointments
Chemotherapeutic drug-Any chemical used in the treatment, relief, or prophylaxis (preventive measures) of a disease
Antimicrobial drug- All inclusive term for any antimicrobial drug, regardless of its origin
heavy metal compounds are non effective on endospore
antibiotic substances produced by the metabolic processes of some microorganisms that can inhibit or destroy other microorganisms
antimicrobial chemotherapy is the use of chemotherapeutic drugs to control infection
Semi-synthetic drugs- Drugs that are chemically modified in lab after being isolated from natural sources
Broad spectrum are antibiotic that are effective against a wide variety of microbial types gram neg and pos
an ideal antimicrobial drug has __ and is ___ selective toxicity and is microbicidal
antibiotics are Natural metabolic products such as bacteria and fungi
Synthetic drugs are Drugs produced by chemical reaction
Narrow spectrum are Antibiotic that are effective against a limited array of microbial types gram pos
an ideal antimicrobial drug has relatively soluble but active when diluted
an ideal antimicrobial drug is not broken down or excreted to quickly
an ideal antimicrobial drug has no development of antimicrobial resistance
an ideal antimicrobial drug remains active in tissues and body fluids
many current antibiotics are derived from bacteria in genera
to identify the infectious agent you have to take specimens
therapy may begin before confirmed id
identifying the infectious agents should be done before drug therapy starts
kirby bauer testing you use pure culture of bacteria is spread on mueller-hinton agar on a small antibiotic paper disks
kirby-bauer testing is incubated 37c
kirby bauer testing measures ___ and interprets ___ zone of inhibition, microbial sensitivity (R, I, S)
the agar diffusion test provides useful data on antimicrobial susceptibility
profile of antimicrobial sensitivity is called an antibiogram
minimum inhibitory concentration prepares antibiotic at a known concentration
minimum inhibitory concentration inoculates a small uniform sample of pure culture into each tube
MIC determines the smallest effective dosage of a drug
What microbial methods use most heat Coagulation and denaturation
Which microbe ctontrol uses dry heat Dehydration and denatiration
The Best drug has high selective toxicity to infectious agent and low human toxicity
To determine how toxic an antimicrobic you look at the therapeutic index
The TI is the ratio of dose of the drug that is toxic to humans compared to its minimum effective (therapeutic dose)
The smaller the TI ration the greater the potential for toxic drug reactions
antibiotics do not work against fungi
Macrolide Polyenes disrupt the selective permeability
Macrolide Polyenes treats serious systemic infections
Azoles interfere with sterol synthesis in fungi
Echinocandins inhibit the cell wall synthesis
Nucleotide Cytosine analog disrupts the DNA/RNA
____ is effective in treating mild and severe intestinal infections and hepatic disease caused by amoeba Amoebicide metronidazole
Quinines are used for Malaria
Treatment for Helminths is 1. Mebendazole and Albendazole 2. Praziquantel
Helminths is difficult to treat because 1. very large 2. similar to human physiology
Antivirals inhibit virus entry and nucleic acid synthesis
drug resistance occurs because of mutations in genome (mutation in prokaryotes, gene transfer)
_____ occurs when there is direct cell-cell contact between two bacteria (which need not be closely related) and transfer of small pieces of DNA called plasmids takes place. This is thought to be the main mechanism of HGT. conjugation
____ is a process where parts of DNA are taken up by the bacteria from the external environment. This DNA is normally present in the external environment due to the death and lysis of another bacterium. transformation
_______ - occurs when bacteria-specific viruses (bacteriophages) transfer DNA between two closely related bacteria. transduction
Allergic Reactions are immune response to ___ presents after ____ drug, liver begins processing
Drug acts as an ____ and _____ antigen, stimulates immune response
______ is the degree to which a chemical substance or a particular mixture of substances can damage an organism/ cells/tissues toxicity
When a drug therapy destroys beneficial resident species, other microbes that were once in small numbers begin to overgrow and cause disease. This is called ________ super infection
Created by: xokitty17xo



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