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Define homeostasis The regulation of the conditions inside the body so that everything works at optimal
Name 3 conditions in the body that need regulating -body temperature -blood glucose levels -water levels
Name 4 receptors in the body -Sound receptors in ear -taste receptors in mouth -smell receptors in nose -light receptors in eyes -touch receptors in skin
What is the job of the central nervous system Coordinates a response
What is the reflex arc -stimulus -receptor -sensory neuron -CNS -motor neuron -effector -response
How does the body get conditions back to optimal -optimal level -level changes from optimal -receptors detect change -CNS processes information -effector reponds
What are synapses and how do they work -connections between neurons -chemicals are secreted across the gap
Why are reflex actions automatic They do not involve the conscious part of the brain
What are the three types of neurons -sensory -relay -motor
What is the function of the cerebral cortex Conscious activities e.g intelligence memory and language
What is the function of the medulla Unconscious activities e.g heart rate and breathing
What is the function of the cerebellum Muscle coordination
How could you study the brain -study patients with brain damage -electrically stimulating the brain -MRI scans
What is the sclera Tough outer wall of the eye
What is the function of the cornea Refracts light into the eye
What is the pupil The hole in the eye where light enters
What is the function of the iris Controls how much light enters the eye
What is the function of the retina Contains light receptors
What is the function of the lens Focuses light onto retina
What is the function of the cilliary muscles Controls the shape of the lens
What is the function of the optic nerve Sends impulses to the brain
What is accomodation The process of changing the shape of the lens to focus on near or distant objects
What happens when we focus on near objects -cilliary muscles contract -suspensory ligaments loosen -lens more fat -refracts light more
What happens when we focus on distant objects -cilliary muscles relax -suspensory ligaments tighten -lens more thin -refracts light less
What is hyperopia Long sightedness - you can't focus on near objects
What is myopia Short sightedness - you can't focus on distant objects
How can we treat vision defects -contact lenses -laser eye surgery -replacement lens surgery
How does the brain and skin monitor temperature Recptors sensitive to blood temperature
Which part of the brain monitors temperature Thermoregulatory centre
How does the body respond when body temperature is too low -vasoconstiction -sweating stops -hairs stand on end -shivering
How does the body respond when body temperature is too high -vasodilation -sweating -hairs fall
How does shivering increase body temperature -skeletal muscles contract -muscles respire more -heat released
How does vasodilation cool the body -blood vessels dilate -more blood through capillaries -heat can transfer out of the blood
How does vasoconstriction warm the body -blood vessels constrict -less blood through capillaries -heat can't transfer out of the blood
How does sweating reduce heat loss sweating evaporates and takes energy from the body which cools the body down
How do hormones travel around the body In the blood
What is a hormones A chemical messanger
Nerves VS Hormones Compare -nerves faster -nerves precise area -hormones last longer -hormones act on a larger area
Why is the pituitary gland a master gland It secreted hormones which act on other glands
What is the job of the pancreas To control and monitor blood glucose levels
What happens when blood glucose is too high -pancreas secretes insulin -glucose moves from blood to cell -glucose converted to glycogen in liver and muscles
What happens when blood glucose is too low -pancreas secretes glucagon -glycogen is converted to glucose in the liver
What do we call stored glucose and where is it stored Glycogen is stored in the muscles and liver
What causes type 1 diabetes Body doesn't produce insulin
What causes type 2 diabetes Body rejects your own insulin
How do we treat type 1 diabetes Injecting insulin
How do we treat type 3 diabetes Carb controlled diet and exercise
Why do cells need constant water levels To function correctly
Name 3 ways the body loses water -sweating -urinating -exhaling
What is the job of the kidneys To filter the blood
Describe the Process of deamination -proteins and amino acids converted into fats and carbohydrate in the liver -this produces ammonia as a waste product -ammonia is toxic so is converted to urea in the liver
What happens when water levels are too high -pituitary gland releases less ADH -less water reabsorbed by kidney tubules
What happens when water levels are too low -pituitary gland releases more ADH -less water reabsorbed by kidney tubules
Advantages and disadvantages of dialysis Adv-can buy time until a donor is found Dis-blood clots -chance of infection -expensive -unpleasant
Pros and cons of kidney transplants Pros-cheaper -less time spent on dialysis Cons-risk to donor -cancers be rejected -long waiting lists
What are the main sex hormones Male=testosterone Female=oestrogen
What is the role of LH, FSH, oestrogen and progesterone in the menstrual cycle -FSH causes egg to mature -LH egg release -progesterone maintaining uterus lining -oestrogen growth of uterus lining
Describe the stages of the menstrual cycle Phase 1 day 1-4 uterus lining breaks down Phase 2 day 4-14 uterus lining builds up Phase 3 day 14 egg release Phase 4 day 14-28 uterus lining maintained
What happens on day 14 of the menstrual cycle Ovulation
Name 4 methods of contraception -Oral pill -patch -implant -spermicidal agents -inuterine device -condom -diaphragm -abstinace -surgical sterilisation
Outline the stages of IVF -FSH and LH taken -eggs fertilised in lab -eggs develop into embryos -embryo inserted into mother
What are the disadvantages of IVF -low success rate -stressful -cancers lead to multiple births
What is the role of adrenaline Prepares the body for fight or flight; raises heart and breathing rate
What is the role of thyroxin Regulates the basal metabolic rate
What is gravitropism Plant growth towards gravity
What is phototropism Plant growth towards light
What is the role of auxin Plant growth
What is the role of gibberellin Controls seed germination
What is the role of ethene Fruit ripening
How are auxins used commercially -weed killers -rooting powders -promoting growth in tissue culture
How are giberellins used commercially -end seed dormancy -promoting flowering -increase fruit size
How is ethene used commercially -controlling when fruit ripen
What factors affect reaction time Age Tiredness Drugs Caffeine Alcohol
What is reaction time The time it takes to respond to a stimulus
Created by: Liam P
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