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Digestive System

Digestive Tract is also called alimentary canal or gastrointestinal tract (GI)
What are the functions of the digestive tract? digestion & absorption
What do the accessory organs of the GI tract do? produces secretions to aid in the process of digestion
What are the 8 major organs of the GI tract? mouth pharynx esophagus stomach small intestine Large intestine rectum anus
What are the 6 accessory organs of the digestive system? teeth tongue salivary glands liver pancreas gallbladder
What is Gastroenterology? the study of the digestive tract and the diagnosis and treatment of its disorders
What is mechanical digestion (phase I)? physically breaking down food into smaller pieces
What is chemical digestion (phase II)? STILL NOT ABSORBED! Produces digestive enzymes from salivary gland, stomach, pancreas and small intestine
What is the Digestive process? 1. ingestion 2. mechanical digestion 3. propulsion 4. chemical digestion 3. absorption 4. elimination/defacation
What are the 4 tunics of the GI tract? 1. Mucosa - 3 layers (epithelium, CT, thin muscle) 2. Submucosa - perfuse gut wall w/ blood 3. Muscularis - longitudinal outer layer & circular inner layer; (myenteric plexus) 4. Serosa - visceral peritoneum contacts parietal peritoneum
What types of epithelium is the mucosa made of? stratified squamous - mechanical force and abrasion simple columnar w/goblet cell - areas of nutrient absorption
What are the layers of the GI tract? (starting from inner layer) 1. lumen 2. mucosa (epithelium, lamina propia, muscularis mucosae) 3. submucosa 4. muscularis - inner circular & outer longitudinal 5. serosa - Areolar CT & Epithelium
How does the circular folds help in the GI tract? increases surface area
What does the submucosal nerve plexus do? regulates glands and smooth muscle in the mucosa
What does the myenteric plexus do? regulates motility - peristalsis of gut - controls motion, not food absorption
What is another name for submucosal nerve plexus plexus of Meissner
What is another name for myenteric nerve plexus? plexus of Auerbach
What is Peritoneum? thin membrane lining surface of organs in abdominal cavity
What are the layers of the peritoneum? Parietal - lines inner wall ; contains pain receptors & the folds form the mesenteries Visceral - covers the abdominal organs themselves Peritoneal cavity - space b/w the 2 peritoneum, contains lubricating fluid & adhesions, peritonitis, ascites
What is the mesentery? folds of the peritoneum, encases small & large intestines
What does the mesentery do? >provides webbing blood, lymph, and nerve support >attaches most small & large intestines to posterior abdominal wall
What does the mesocolon do? connects duodenum and part of colon to posterior abdominal wall
Greater Omentum suspended from greater curvature of stomach and covers the intestines. contains fat, prevents friction, and aids in localizing infections
Lesser Omentum passes from lesser curvature of stomach to the transverse fissure of liver
Intraperitoneal mesentery encloses the abdominal organs on both sides, within the peritoneal cavity
Retroperitoneal mesentery covers ventral side of an organ, lies directly against posterior wall EX: duodenum, most of the pancreas, & kidneys
Mouth where digestion begins palate forms roof of mouth; tongue is floor
Structures of mouth Tongue w/lingual papillae lingual frenulum hard & soft palate uvula palatine tonsil sublingual & submandibular salivary glands upper & lower lip teeth gingivae
What are the 5 major oral structures? Tongue - muscle covered mucous membrane Lingual frenulum - anchors tongue to mouth floor Hard Pal - formed by maxillae and palatine bones Soft Pal - arch of muscle b/w mouth and nasopharynx Uvula - cone shaped process hangs down from soft palate
What are the functions of Saliva? 1. Cleans mouth 2. Moistens & dissolves food 3. Contains food-dissolving & Antibacterial enzymes
Which 3 glands produce saliva? Parotid Sublingual Submandibular
What makes up saliva? Water Lysozome Mucin Salivary amylase & and Lipase (starch & fat breakdown)
What is a Bolus? mass of food, easy to swallow
Which salivary gland is responsible for swelling & inflammation due to mumps virus (paramyxovirus)? Parotid Gland
Which salivary gland empties into the mouth on either side of lingual frenulum? Submandibular gland
Which salivary gland drains through ducts on the floor of mouth? Sublingual gland
4 types of teeth Incisors - sharp front teeth; for biting Cuspids - pointed edge to tear up food; for tearing Premolars - flatter shape with 2 rounded cusps; for mashing Molars - several pointed cusps; for crushing
portion of tooth above gum line Crown
gum Gingiva
where root and crown meet Neck
embedded in alveolar socket of mandible Root
hard tissue covering crown Enamel
firm, yellow tissue; makes up bulk of tooth Dentin
mass of blood, nerves, & CT; fills root canals Pulp Cavity
keeps tooth in place Periodontal ligament
covers dentin in the root Cementum
enters through hole at bottom of each tooth Nerves & Blood vessels
3 parts of the Pharynx Nasopharynx Oropharynx Laryngopharynx
What prevents backflow (Gerd)? Lower esophageal sphincter (LES)
What does Peristalsis do? entrance of bolus triggers muscle contraction and propels food towards stomach
What is Mastication? chewing - cheeks & closed lips hold food b/w teeth, tongue mixes the food with saliva to soften and teeth cut & grind solid food
What is Deglutition? Swallowing - movement of food from the mouth to the stomach
3 stages of deglutition voluntary/bucchal phase pharyngeal phase esophageal phase
What nutrients are absorbed by the intestines? Protein, Starch, & Fat
Where does digestion mainly take place? Intestines
T/F Alcohol absorbed in small intestines; rate of absorption depends on how quickly the stomach empties its contents into the intestine TRUE
T/F Eating before drinking alcohol speeds up absorption of alcohol FALSE - slows down
Name of folds inside the stomach Rugae
Muscular tank designed to store food, proteins, and churn food Chyme
4 regions of the stomach cardia, fundus, body, pylorus
2 curves of the stomach greater curvature lesser curvature
sphincter inside the stomach pyloric sphincter
4 secretory cells in the stomach mucus-neck cells parietal cells chief cells enteroendocrine cells
3 glands of the stomach Cardia, Antrum, Body
What are Gastric Pits? depressions in mucosa where glands secrete gastric juice
mucus to protect lining and prevent autodigestion Mucous-neck cells
secrete hydrochloric acid to kill microbes and intrinsic factor to absorb vitamin B12 parietal cells
secrete pepsinogen - a digestive enzyme precursor (zymogen) - activated to pepsin to digest proteins Chief cells
found in the wall of the gut that secrete hormones that regulate numerous processes in the body, including controlling glucose levels, food intake, and stomach emptying Enteroendocrine Cells
gastric glands to increase secretory activity; secreted by G-cells Gastrin
Hormone that increases secretin in liver & pancreas to increase bile & pancreas juice Cholecystokinin (CCK)
inhibits gastric secretion of all products & inhibits gastric motility and emptying Somatostatin
What are the 3 phases of stomach secretion? C.G.I. Cephalic phase - brain control. Gastric phase - food enters stomach. Intestinal phase - chyme moves to duodenum.
What is caused by reverse peristalsis, overstretching, chemical irritants, pain, fear, viruses, bad food? Vomiting
Where does the Medulla oblongata sends 2 impulses from? Emetic Center 1. upper esophageal sphincter to open 2. esophagus and body of stomach to relax
Where are most nutrients absorbed and chemical digestion takes place? Small Intestines
Food moves through small intestines via Segmentation & Peristalsis
3 subdivisions of the small intestines Duodenum, Jejunum, Ilieum
Ileocecal Sphincter transition b/w small & large intestine
What has more digestive processes than anywhere else in GI tract? Duodenum
Where does the duodenum begin? Pyloric valve of stomach
What does the duodenum receive from the gall bladder? Bile
Where in the stomach HCl is neutralized and pancreatic enzymes begin digestion? Duodenum
What hormone is released by the duodenum? Secretin
What are the 4 things that Secretin can do? regulates water homeostasis. Inhibits HCl secretion of parietal cells. stimulates bicarbonate from pancreas. stimulates bile from liver
What cells are Secretin made by and where? S-cells of Duodenum
What does Secretin do if it is inhibited by H2 atagonists? reduces gastric acid secretion If reduced, pH will increase above 4.5 and secretin CANNOT be released.
Where does digestion TRULY begin? Duodenum of small intestines
What has circular folds of the lining (surface area) in the Jejunum? Plicae
What has projections of the plicae in Jejunum? Villi
What forms the brush border (nutrient absorption) Jejunum? Microvilli
What are the 3 sections of the Jejunum? Plicae, Villi, Microvilli
Where are there clusters of lymphatic nodules, tonsils of the intestines, and they catch and destroy bacteria? Peyer's Patch of Ileum
Ring-like contractions occurs in small intestines 1 area relaxes while the next contracts and breaks up food and mixes with digestive juices Segmentation
Successive waves ripple along, moving waste towards the exit Peristalsis
What do the Plicae (circular folds) do in the jejunum? slows progress of chyme and increases its contact with mucosa; increasing absorption through exposure
What does the Villi do in the jejunum? covers top of circular folds like a carpet
What does Lacteal in jejunum do? has lymph vessel in each villus that transports fats from small intestines to heart to be pumped out
What does the Intestinal cyrpts do in the jejunum? It's the site of cell regeneration
What can the microvilli do in the jejunum? projects to increase surface area Produce digestive enzymes.
What is the largest gland in the body? Liver
What does the Liver produce & secrete? Bile
What does the Liver store & release? Glucose
What does the Liver produce that is involved in blood coagulation? Proteins
The Liver can_________absorbed production of digestion(carbs, fats, vitamins, and iron) Store
The Liver _____________ poisons to make them less toxic and more easily eliminated from the body. detoxifies
What are the 4 lobes of the liver? 1. Right Lobe 2. Left Lobe 3. Quadrate Lobe (gallbladder side) 4. Caudate Lobe (near IVC)
What does the falciform ligament do in the liver? separates lobes anchors liver to abdominal wall
What gives oxygen to the liver from aorta? Hepatic Artery
What vein sends nutrient-rich, deoxygenated blood from digestive system coming to the liver for cleaning? Hepatic Portal Vein
What liver cells are arranged into lobules? Hepatocytes
What do lobules of the liver look like? hexagonal-shaped
Which vein drains by a venule in its center? Central vein of liver
What is the Portal Triad? 1. Arteriole 2. Venule 3. Bile Duct lymphatic vessels and vagus nerve fibers
What can Kupffer cells do? phagocytize bacteria, dead RBCs and gets debris out
The ________vein carries the processed blood to the ____________ vein then to ___________. Central ; Hepatic ; IVC
What does the blood filter through? Sinusoids
What 3 things do sinusoids do? Removes nutrients (amino acids, iron, glucose, & vitamins) Removes Toxins, hormones, and drugs Adds clotting factors (albumin, angiotensin, & glucose)
What is Bile? Salt secreted by the liver
What is emulsifies? Breaks down large fat droplets
Where is bile concentrated and stored? Gallbladder
What 3 things does the Gallbladder store and where does it flow down through? Mostly water small amount of bile salts Bilirubin flows through common bile duct
What happens if there is a backup of bile in the tissue? Jaundice
What controls bile from the common bile duct as it merges with pancreatic duct? Ampulla of Vater
What controls the flow of both bile and pancreatic juice into the duodenum? Spinchter of Oddi
Which is the large gland behind the stomach? Pancreas
Pancreas secretes what digestive enzymes in an alkaline fluid secreted to duodenum? Pancreatic juice is an exocrine function
Which cells secrete digestive enzymes? Acinar Cells
What secretes bicarbonate to neutralize HCl chyme? Epithelial Cells
Created by: hrmcgee
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