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Midterm 2

Chapters: 29,30,35, Plant Phys

Green alga protist ancestor steps 1. gametophyte (n) 2. gametes (n) 3. fusion (n+n) 4. zygote (2n) 5. sporophyte (2n) 6. spores (n)
green alga ancestor eukaryotic, multicellular, kingdom plantae, cell type, special organelles
plant features 1. apical meristems 2. alternation of generations 3. cellulose in walls 4.chloroplasts 5. embryo nourished by gametophyte 6. spores from sporophyte 7. sex organs 8. starch as energy reserves 9. stomates
Ten Phyla of Extant Plants 1.Anthocerophyta 2. Anthophyta 3. Bryophyta 4. Coniferophyta 5.Cycadophyta 6.Ginkgophyta 7. Gnetophyta 8. Hepatophyta 9. Lycophyta 10. Pterophyta
Nonvascular Plants (Bryophytes) 1. Anthocerophyta 2. Bryophyta 3. Hepatophyta
Common Name of Hepatophyta Liverworts
Common Name of Anthocerophyta Hornworts
Common Name of Bryophyta Mosses
What are the Two Types of Vascular Plants? Seedless vascular and seed plants
What are the Two Parts of Seed Plants? Gymnosperms and Angiosperms
Seedless Vascular Plants Lycophyta and Pterophyta
Seed Plants (Gymnosperms) 1. Coniferophyta 2. Cycadophyta 3.Ginkgophyta 4. Gnetophyta
Seed Plants (Angiosperm) Anthophyta
Origin of Land Plants 475 mya
Origin of Vascular Plants 420 mya
Origin of extant seed plants 305 mya
facts of nonvascular plants 1. Mosses, Liverworts, Hornworts 2. No true vascular tissue 3. No true cuticle 4. Gametophyte dominant, sporophyte dependent 5. flagellated sperm
Diploid fertilization to meiosis
haploid meiosis to fertilization
facts of seedless vascular plants 1. vascular tissue (xylem /phloem) 2. cuticle 3. sporophyte dominant 4. gametophyte small and independent 5. roots, stems true leaves 6. flagellated sperm 7. earliest fossil 410 mya then massive radiation in carboniferous created "coal forests"
seed plants have.... 1. seeds 2. reduced gametophyes 3. heterospory 4. ovules 5. pollen
mosses and other nonvascular plants 1. gametophyte dominant 2. sporophyte reduced
ferns and other seedless vascular plants 1. gametophyte reduced 2. sporophyte dominant
seed plants (gymnosperms and angiosperms) 1. gametophyte reduced 2. sporophyte dominant
The ancestors of seed plants were likely ___, while seed plants are ___. homosporous; heterosporous
megasporangia produce megaspores that give rise to female gametophytes
microsporangia produce microspores that give rise to male gametophytes
Three steps of an ovule to a seed 1. unfertilized ovule 2. fertilized ovule 3. gymnosperm seed
unfertilized ovule 1. integument 2. megasporangium 3. megaspore 4. spore wall
fertilized ovule 1. female gametophyte 2. spore wall 3. egg nucleus 4. discharged sperm nucleus 5. male gametophyte 6. micropyle 7. pollen grain
gymnosperm seed 1. seed coat 2. food supply 3. embryo
gymnosperms consist of four phyla 1. cycadophyta (cycads) 2. Gingkophyta 3. Gnetophyta 4. Coniferophyta
progymnosperms begun to acquire some adaptations that characterize seed plants
characteristics of angiosperms 1. phylum anthophyta 2. fruits (novelty) 3. 2 integuments on ovule 4. flowers (novelty) 5. double fertilization 6. 250k spp; 450+ families; dominant 7. from early cretaceous (130 mya)
fruit consists of a mature ovary but can also include other flower parts
Five Derived Traits of Seed Plants 1. reduced gametophytes 2. heterospory 3. ovules 4. pollen 5. seeds
Pollination 1. coevolution 2. types of pollinators 3. attracting pollinators 4. rewarding pollinators 5. economic importance 6. pollinators in decline
monocot characteristics 1. one cotyledon 2. veins usually paralell 3. vascular tissue scattered 4. root system vibrous 5. pollen grain with one opening 6. floral organs in multiples of three
eudicot characteristics 1. two cotyledons 2. veins usually netlike 3. vascular tissue arranged in a ring 4. taproot 5. pollen grain with three openings 6. Floral organs usually in multiples of four or five
Plants have ___ composed of different ___, which in turn are composed of different ___ types organs; tissues;cell
Plants take up water and minerals from below ground
Plants take up CO2 and light above ground
Three basic organs evolved to facilitate efficient resource acquisition roots, stems, and leaves
organs of angiosperm 1. flower 2. leaves 3. stems 4. roots
What parts are in shoot system? 1. reproductive shoot 2. apical bud 3. node 4. internode 5. apical bud 6. vegetative shoot 7. leaf 8. axillary bud 9. stem
What parts are in root system? 1. taproot 2. lateral branch roots
root an organ with important functions: Anchoring the plant Absorbing minerals and water Storing carbohydrates
taproot system Tall plants with large shoot masses
taproot develops from the primary root and functions in anchoring the plant in the soil, with lateral roots absorbing.
fibrous root system spreads out like a thick mat below the soil surface
Root hairs finger-like extensions of epidermal cells, form near the root tip and increase the absorptive surface of the root
nodes the points at which leaves are attached
internodes the stem segments between nodes
axillary bud a structure that has the potential to form a lateral branch, thorn, or flower
leave characteristics -photosynthesis -gas exchange -water evaporation -veins of a Monocot -veins of a Eudicot
Three tissue systems dermal, ground, vascular
dermal tissue system consists of the epidermis covered by a waxy cuticle
periderm replace the epidermis in older regions of stems and roots
guard cells facilitate gas exchange in shoots
trichomes outgrowths of the shoot epidermis that can reduce water loss, reflect light, and help defend against insects
Vascular Tissues transport of materials through the plant and provides mechanical support
Two vascular tissues: xylem and phloem
xylem conducts water and dissolved minerals upward from roots into the shoots
phloem transports sugars from where they are made (primarily leaves) to storage structures or sites of growth
stele The vascular tissue of a root or stem
vascular cylinder the stele of the root
ground tissue system Tissues that are neither dermal nor vascular
pith Ground tissue internal to the vascular tissue
cortex ground tissue external to the vascular tissue
The major types of plant cells are Parenchyma Collenchyma Sclerenchyma Water-conducting cells of the xylem Sugar-conducting cells of the phloem
Mature parenchyma cells -Have thin and flexible primary walls -Generally lack secondary walls -Have a large central vacuole -Perform the most metabolic functions -Retain the ability to divide and differentiate
Collenchyma cells -grouped in strands and help support young parts of the plant shoot -They have unevenly thickened primary cell walls -They are living at maturity -These cells provide flexible support without restraining growth
Sclerenchyma cells -rigid due to thick secondary walls containing lignin, a strengthening polymer -They are dead at functional maturity
Two types of sclerenchyma cells - sclereids -fibers
Sclereids short and irregular in shape
Fibers long and slender and arranged in threads
Water-Conducting Cells of the Xylem Tracheids and vessel elements, are dead and lignified at maturity
Tracheids found in the xylem of all vascular plants
Vessel elements common to most angiosperms, and a few gymnosperms and seedless vascular plants. They align end to end to form long pipes called vessels
Sugar-Conducting Cells of the Phloem - alive at maturity, but lack organelles - In seedless vascular plants and gymnosperms, sugars are transported through sieve cells - In angiosperms, sugars are transported in sieve tubes, chains of cells called sieve-tube elements
sieve plates porous end walls between sieve-tube elements that allow flow between cells
meristems Indeterminate, by undifferentiated tissues
The herbaceous habit No secondary growth Drought avoiders/cold avoiders Annuals/perennials
Primary Growth During primary growth, cells produced by the meristem give rise to three primary meristems that will produce the mature tissues of the plant
primary meristems The protoderm produces dermal tissue The ground meristem produces ground tissue The procambium produces vascular tissue
root cap protects the root apical meristem as the root pushes through soil
Growth occurs just behind the root tip, in three zones of cells: -cell division -elongation -differentiation, or maturation
shoot apical meristem a dome-shaped mass of dividing cells at the shoot tip
Axillary buds develop from meristematic cells left at the bases of leaf primordia
Secondary growth increases the diameter of stems and roots in woody plants -occurs in gymnosperms and many eudicots, but is rare in monocots -growth occurs in stems and roots of woody plants but rarely in leaves -consists of the tissues produced by the vascular cambium and cork cambium
Plants need to acquire and circulate nutrients -Carbon and energy from photosynthesis is transported via phloem -Water and nutrients are from the soil are transported via xylem
Macro-nutrients needed by plants CHOPKINS CaFe Mg
Micronutrients needed by plants MoMn CuZn B
xylem Transport in plants Water and nutrients from soil
Acquisition of Energy and Carbon: Photosynthesis -Occurs in the mesophyll of the leaf, in the chloroplasts -Inputs: light, H2O, CO2 Chlorophyll, Xylem, Stomates -Outputs: C6H12O6, O2 Phloem, Stomates
translocation The products of photosynthesis are transported by phloem sieve-tube elements
Phloem sap (sugar water) travels from a sugar source to a sugar sink
sugar source an organ that is a net producer of sugar, such as mature leaves
sugar sink an organ that is a net consumer or depository of sugar, such as roots, buds, and fruits
pressure flow Phloem sap moves through xylem cells by bulk flow driven by positive pressure
Phloem sap flows from sources, where pressure is ___, to sinks, where pressure is low high
Bulk flow by positive pressure (pressure flow) in a sieve tube 1) loading of sugar 2) uptake of water 3) unloading of sugar 4) recycling of water
cohesion-adhesion Water and dissolved nutrients enter the plant through root hairs or mycorrhizal hairs and are pushed a short distance up the plant
Meanwhile, at the top of the plant, ___ of water vapor is happening through the stomates of the leaves. transpiration
Cohesion-tension hypothesis says transpiration and water cohesion pull water from shoots to roots
Transpiration of water vapor out of stoma pulls water from the cells of leaf ___ and ___. mesophyll; xylem.
Since water is ____ (sticks to itself) it pulls xylem sap up from the roots. cohesive
Generation of transpirational pull 1. Water Vapor diffuses via stomata 2. water vapor replaced from water film 3. air water interface retreats 4. increased surface tension pulls water from cells and air spaces 5. water from xylem pulled into cells and air spaces
Plant Responses to External and Internal Signals Light Gravity Insect Predation Touch Moisture Growth and other hormones Seasons (photoperiod) Drought Cold
Created by: savepeople



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