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Natural Selection &
VOCABULARY for Unit 9
|a gradual change in the characteristics of a population of animals or plants over successive generations
|the process whereby organisms better adapted to their environment tend to survive and produce more offspring. The theory of its action was first fully expounded by Charles Darwin and is now believed to be the main process that brings about evolution.
|English naturalist, geologist and biologist, best known for his contributions to the science of evolution. His proposition that all species of life have descended over time from common ancestors
|Fitness is the quantitative representation of natural and sexual selection within evolutionary biology. It can be defined either with respect to a genotype or to a phenotype in a given environment.
|lack of consistency or fixed pattern; liability to vary or change.
|capable of being transmitted by heredity from one generation to a later one. capable of being inherited. rare capable of inheriting; having the right to inherit.
|The breeding of plants and animals to produce desirable traits. Organisms with the desired traits, such as size or taste, are artificially mated or cross-pollinated with organisms with similar desired traits.
|alteration in the structure or function of an organism or any of its parts that results from natural selection and by which the organism becomes better fitted to survive and multiply in its environment.
|physical features of an organism like the bill on a bird or the fur on a bear
|evolved resemblance between an organism and another object, often an organism of another species.
|the disguising of military personnel, equipment, and installations by painting or covering them to make them blend in with their surroundings.
|total number of fossils that have been discovered, as well as to the information derived from them.
|existence of shared ancestry between a pair of structures, or genes, in different taxa.
|similarity of function and superficial resemblance of structures that have different origins.
|anatomical feature or behavior that no longer seems to have a purpose in the current form of an organism of the given species
|the branch of biology and medicine concerned with the study of embryos and their development.
|the stock of different genes in an interbreeding population.
|variation in the relative frequency of different genotypes in a small population, owing to the chance disappearance of particular genes as individuals die or do not reproduce.
|relative frequency of an allele (variant of a gene) at a particular locus in a population, expressed as a fraction or percentage.
|type of natural selection in which the population mean stabilizes on a particular non-extreme trait value
|sharp reduction in the size of a population due to environmental events or human activities.
|the reduced genetic diversity which results when a population is descended from a small number of colonizing ancestors.
|the remains or impression of a prehistoric organism preserved in petrified form or as a mold or cast in rock.
|the formation of new and distinct species in the course of evolution.
|mode of natural selection in which an extreme phenotype is favored over other phenotypes, causing the allele frequency to shift over time in the direction of that phenotype.