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Vocab Unit 9

Biology Unit 9 Vocabulary Terms

TermDefinition
evolution process by which different kinds of living organisms are thought to have developed and diversified from earlier forms during the history of the earth.
natural selection process whereby organisms better adapted to their environment tend to survive and produce more offspring.
Charles Darwin English naturalist, geologist and biologist, best known for his contributions to the science of evolution.
fitness ability to survive to reproductive age, find a mate, and produce offspring.
variability tendency of individual genetic characteristics in a population to vary from one another.
inheritability process of genetic transmission of characteristics from parent or ancestor to offspring.
artificial selection breeding of plants and animals to produce desirable traits.
adaptation dynamic evolutionary process that fits organisms to their environment, enhancing their evolutionary fitness
structural adaptation physical features of an organism like the bill on a bird or the fur on a bear
mimicry evolved resemblance between an organism and another object, often an organism of another species.
camouflage an adaptation that allows animals to blend in with certain aspects of their environment
fossil record total number of fossils that have been discovered, as well as to the information derived from them
homologous structure when very different animals have bones that appear very similar in form or function and seem to be related
analogous structure various structures in different species having the same function but have evolved separately, thus do not share common ancestor
vestigial structure/organ anatomical feature or behavior that no longer seems to have a purpose in the current form of an organism of the given species
embryology prenatal development of gametes (sex cells), fertilization, and development of embryos and fetuses.
gene pool collection of genes in an interbreeding population that includes each gene at a certain frequency in relation to its alleles
genetic drift change in the frequency of an existing gene variant (allele) in a population due to random sampling of organisms.
allele/gene frequency describes the amount of genetic diversity at the individual, population, or species level
stabilizing selection type of natural selection in which the population mean stabilizes on a particular non-extreme trait value
bottleneck effect sharp reduction in the size of a population due to environmental events
founder effect loss of genetic variation that occurs when a new population is established by a very small number of individuals from a larger population
fossil Any preserved evidence of life from a past geological age
speciation formation of new and distinct species in the course of evolution
directional selection mode of natural selection in which a single phenotype is favored, causing the allele frequency to continuously shift in one direction
disruptive selection describes changes in population genetics in which extreme values for a trait are favored over intermediate values
Created by: AngelTorrres