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Lymphatic System 3

Bio 169

Adaptive (Specific) Defenses *Specific resistance(immunity) *Responds to specific antigens *With coordinated action of T Cells(Thymus) and B Cells(Bone Marrow with NK Cells)
Two Types Of Adaptive Defense *Cell Mediated immunity (T cells deciding who to kill) *Antibody Mediated immunity (B Cell)
Cell Mediated Immunity *T Cells *Defends against abnormal cells and pathogens inside cells *Use perforin and granzymes
Antibody Mediated (Humoral-Bone Marrow) Immunity *B Cells *Defends against pathogens(antigens) in the body fluids *Use antibodies
Forms of Immunity *Innate(Born with) *Adaptive(acquire these these through life)
Innate Immunity *Present at birth
Adaptive Immunity *After Birth 1. Active Adaptive- antibodies develop after exposure to antigen a. Naturally acquired active immunity b.Artificially induced active immunity 2.Passive Adaptive- antibodies are transferred from another source a. Naturally acquired passiv
1. Active Immunity Types -Naturally acquired active immunity From environmental exposure to pathogens(ex. kids playing in dirt -Artificially induced active immunity Through vaccines containing attenuated(weak) patogens
2. Passive Immunity Types - Naturally acquired passive immunity Antibodies acquired from their mother -Artificially induced passive immunity By an injection of antibodies(ex. injection against rabies)
Four Properties of Adaptive(acquired) Immunity 1. Specificity 2. Versatility 3.Memory 4. Tolerance
Specificity -Each T and B Cell respond only to a specific antigen and ignores all others
Versatility -Any antigen any time -Active lymphocytes makes clones(create more lymphocytes) of itself that are sensitive to the same antigen
Memory -Two groups of cells are made when antigen encountered: active(now) and inactive(later) -Inactive group does not wake up until you are exposed a second time and then they remember antigen and strikes with faster, longer, more effective attack
Tolerance -Immune system ignores normal antigens (self-antigens)
T Cells -Provide cell mediated immunity -Defends against abnormal cells and pathogens inside cells
B Cells -Provide Anti-Body mediated immunity -Defend against antigens and pathogens in body fluids
Major Types of T Cells 1.Cytotoxic T Cells(Tc) 2.Memory T Cells 3.Helper T Cells(Th) 4.Suppressor T Cells(Ts)
1. Cytotoxic T Cells(Tc) -Responsible for cell mediated immunity
2. Memory T Cells -Produced and activated if pathogen occurs again later
3. Helper T Cells(Th) -Stimulates responses of T cells and B cells, especially active B cells
4. Suppressor T Cells(Ts) -Inhibit stop function of T cells and B cells when attack should end
Antigen Recognition by T Cells 1. CD Markers- -also called cluster of differentiation markers 2. CD3 Receptor(receive) Complex -Found in all T cells -Present at all times
Two Types of CD Markers 1. CD8 Markers- -found on cytotoxic T cells and suppressor T cells (Goes and Kills) -Respond to antigens on Class l MHC proteins 2. CD4 Markers- -Found on Helper T Cells (Tell B cells to make antibodies) -Respond to antigens on Class ll MHC protie
CD8 and CD4 -Both bind to CD3 receptor complex -Prepare cell for activation
Antigen Presentation T Cells cant recognize antigen unless it is bound to a glycoprotein in the plasma membrane of another cell and presented
Membrane Histocompatibility Complex(MHC) proteins -Also called Human leukocyte antigens (HLAs) -Has a narrow groove that binds an antigen for presentation to a T cell -Class l for cytotoxic T cells + Class ll for Helper T cells
Two Classes of MHC proteins 1. Class l -Found in membranes of all nucleated body cells -Mature cytotoxic T cells respond to MHC l 2. Class ll -Found in membranes of antigen-presenting cells(APs) -Mature Helper T cells respond to MHC ll