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Vascular Plants

Chapter 35

cell fundamental unit of life
tissue a group of cells consisting of one or more cell types that together perform a specialized function
organ consists of several types of tissues that together carry out particular functions
root an organ that anchors a vascular plant in the soil, absorbs minerals and water, an often stores carbohydrates and other reserves
lateral roots branch, greatly enhancing the ability of the root system to anchor the plant and to acquire resources such as water and minerals from the soil
taproot develops from the primary root
root hairs thin, finger-like extensions of root epidermal cells, emerge and increase the surface area of the root enormously.
stem plant organ bearing leaves and buds
nodes the points at which leaves are attached
internodes the stem segments between nodes
apical bud shoot tip
axillary bud form a lateral branch or a thorn or flower
leaf the main photosynthetic organ
petiole joins the leaf to the stem at a node
veins the vascular tissue of leaves
tissue system continuous throughout the plant, connecting all the organs
dermal tissue system serves as the outer protective covering of the plant
epidermis a tightly packed cells
cuticle waxy, epidermal coating, helps prevent water loss
periderm protective tissues
guard cells specialized epidermal cells
trichomes highly specialized epidermal cells found in shoots consists of outgrowths
vascular tissue system to facilitate the transport of materials through the plant and to provide mechanical support
xylem conducts water and dissolved minerals upward from roots into the shoots
phloem transports sugars, the products of photosynthesis
stele vascular tissue of a root or stem
pith ground tissue that is internal to the vascular tissue
cortex ground tissue that is external to the vascular tissue
parenchyma cells primary walls that are relatively thin and flexible, and most lack secondary walls
collenchyma cells grouped in strands that help support young parts of the plant shoot
sclerenchyma cells function as supporting elements in the plant but are much more rigid than collenchyma cells
lignin a relatively indigestible strengthening polymer that accounts for more than a quarter of dry mass of wood
sclereids impart hardness to nutshells and seed coats and the gritty texture to pear fruits
fibers grouped in strands, are long , slender, and tapered.
tracheids occur in the xylem of all vascular plants
vessel elements wider, shorter, thinner walled, and less tapered than the tracheids
root cap protects the delicate apical meristem as the root pushes through the abrasive soil
endodermis innermost layer of the cortex
pericycle solid core of xylem and phloem tissues surrounded by a cell layer
stomata allow exchange of CO2 and O2 between the surrounding air and the photosynthetic cells inside the leaf
mesophyll leaf's ground tissue
bark includes all tissues external to the vascular cambium
development the specific series of changes by which cells form tissues, organs, and organisms
polarity the condition of having structural or chemical differences at opposite ends of an organism
pattern formation the development of specific structures in specific locations
Created by: savepeople
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