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Mutations and Genetic Technology

Mutation A permanent change in DNA.
Effects of Mutations Beneficial, harmful, neutral.
Point Mutations Small changes in the DNA sequence (nucleotide).
Nucleotide Basic structure unit of DNA.
4 types of nucleotides in DNA Adenine goes with Thymine; Cytosine goes with Guanine.
Frameshift Mutation When a single base is deleted or inserted, it makes the sequence of DNA shift to a new set of codons. "The big dog" becomes "The bgd og."
Deletion When a nucleotide is missing from a sequence.
Insertion When a nucleotide is inserted into the sequence.
Substitution When a nucleotide is exchanged from one base to another. An "A" for a "C".
Translocation When two segments from different chromosomes change positions.
Mutagens Chemicals that cause mutations.
When do mutations occur? During the duplication process or from mutagens.
Types of mutagens that can cause a mutation. Tobacco smoke, pollution, and X-Rays.
Sickle Cell Anemia Mutation of blood cells caused by substitution.
Created by: cook2sm