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Mutation A permanent change in DNA.
Effects of Mutations Beneficial, harmful, neutral.
Point Mutations Small changes in the DNA sequence (nucleotide).
Nucleotide Basic structure unit of DNA.
4 types of nucleotides in DNA Adenine goes with Thymine; Cytosine goes with Guanine.
Frameshift Mutation A change in the sequence of codons in the DNA. Ex: "The big dog" = "Teb igd og" if the h is missing.
Deletion When a nucleotide is missing from a sequence.
Insertion When a nucleotide is inserted into the sequence.
Substitution When a nucleotide is exchanged from one base to another. An "A" for a "C".
Translocation When two segments from different chromosomes change positions.
Mutagens Chemicals that cause mutations.
When do mutations occur? During the duplication process or from mutagens.
Types of mutagens that can cause a mutation. Tobacco smoke, pollution, and X-Rays.
Sickle Cell Anemia Mutation of blood cells caused by substitution.
Created by: cook2sm
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