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Plant Diversity II

Chapter 30

seed consists of an embryo and its food supply, surrounded by a protective coat
integument layer of sporophyte tissue; envelops and protects the megasporangium
ovule the whole structure-megasporangium, megaspore, and their integuments
pollen grain consists of a male gametophyte enclosed within the pollen wall
pollination the transfer of pollen to the part of a seed plant that contains the ovules
flower angiosperm structure that is specialized for sexual reproduction
sepals base of the flower
petals brightly colored in most flowers and can aid in attracting pollinators
stamens microsporophylls; they produce microspores that develop into pollen grains containing male gametophytes
filament stamen consists of a stalk
anther terminal sac
carpels megasporophylls: they produce megaspores that give rise to female gametophytes
stigma tip of carpel
style stigma to a structure at the base of the carpel
ovary contains one or more ovules
pistil single carpel or two or more fused carpels
fruit ovary wall thickens and ovary matures
embryo sac each ovule, develops in the ovary contains female gametophyte
cross-pollination the transfer of pollen from an anther of a flower on one plant to the stigma of a flower on another plant of the same species
micropyle a pore in the integuments of the ovule, and discharges two sperm cells into the female gametophyte
double fertilization one fertilization event produces a zygote and the other produces a triploid cell
cotyledons zygote develops into a sporophyte embryo with a rudimentary root and one or two seed leaves
endosperm tissue rich in starch and other food reserves that nourish the developing embryo
monocots species with one cotyledon
eudicots vast majority of species once categorized as dicots form a large clade
basal angiosperms diverged from other angiosperms early in the history of the group
magnoliids fourth lineage
seed plants have become the dominant ____ on land producers
All seed plants have ____, ____, ____, and ____. reduced gametophytes, heterospory, ovules, pollen
Gametophyte life cycle mosses and other bryophytes
sporophyte life cycle ferns and other seedless vascular plants
In nonvascular plants and seedless vascular plants such as ferns, free living gametophytes release _____ ____ that swim through a film of water to reach eggs flagellated sperm
____ were the main way that mosses, ferns, and other seedless plants spread over Earth for the first 100 million years of plant life on land spores
What advantages do seeds provide over spores? spores are usually single-celled, wheras seeds are multicellular
extant seed plants form two sister clades gymnosperms and angiosperms
conifers cone-bearing plants; pines, firs, and redwoods
Three reproductive adaptations the miniaturization of their gametophytes, the advent of the seed resistant, dispersible stage in the life cycle, and the appearance of pollen as an airborne agent that brings gametes together
Of the ten plant phyla, four are gymnosperms Cycadophyta, Ginkgophyta, Gnetophyta, and Coniferophyta
A flower is specialized shoot that can have up to four types of modified leaves called floral organs sepals, petals, stamens, and carpels
What characteristics do flowers vary? shape, size, color, odor
What is the function of double fertilization in angiosperms? -synchronizes the development of food storage in the seed with the development of the embryo - occurs in some gymnosperm species belonging to the phylum Gnetophyta
Most of our food comes from ____. angiosperms
Created by: savepeople