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Lecture Exam 2

Chapter 5-11

Chapter 5 Heart & Blood Vessels Functions for the Cardiovascular System: Transport Blood to Blood Plasma. Blood Plasma Blood being circulated formed elements.
4 Types of circuits: 1. Systemic Circuits 2. Coronary Circuits 3. Pulmonary Circuits 4. Fetal Circuits
Systemic Circuits serving the REST OF THE BODY
Coronary Circuits serving the Heart
Pulmonary Circuits GAS EXCHANGES at the LUNGS
Fetal Circuits serving the FETUS
3 Types of blood vessel: 1. Arteries 2. Capillaries 3. Veins
Arteries Transport blood away from the heart.
Capillaries Microscopic blood vessels. Each Capillary consist of multiple capillaries are used for exchange: nutrients, cellular waste
Veins carries oxygen & drains blood toward the heart.
Blood contains : Oxygenated Blood & Deoxygenated Blood
Oxygenated Blood has : Rich Oxygen Blood
Deoxygenated Blood has: Poor Oxygen Blood
Arteries carries both : Oxygenated & Deoxygenated Blood
Veins carries both : Deoxygenated Blood & Oxygenated Blood
The Heart consist 4 Chambers 2 Atria: Right & Left Atrium 2 Ventricles: Right & Left Ventricles
Right side of the Heart transport: Deoxygenated Blood (Poor Oxygen Blood) through the Right Atrium & Right Ventricle.
Left side of the Heart transport: Oxygenated Blood (Right Oxygen Blood) through the Left Atrium & Left Ventricle.
Systole: Heart Contraction
Diastole: Heart Relaxation
Cardiac Cycle: Reflects the mechanical component of the our heart.
All 4 Chambers of the Heart can: Relax(Diastole) simultaneously.
But All 4 Chambers of the Heart cannot: Contract(Systole) simultaneously.
Electrical Component of the Heart- Dictates the pace of the heart
Electrical Component of the Heart consist of: SA node- Orctestra Conductor AV node Bundle Branches Purkinge Fiber
What controls the Electrical Component of the Heart 3 consist: 1.Cardiac Muscle 2.Nervous System 3.Endocrine System
Intrinscic Control Mechanism Cardiac Muscle
Extrinsic Control Mechanism Nervous System Endocrine System
2 Organ Systems of the Electrical Component of the Heart 1.Nervous System 2.Endocrine System
P wave deflection is followed by Arial Systole means: Both areas of the contracting (Systole)
QRS wave contains 2 things: Artial Diastole & Ventricular Systole
Arial Diastole means Both Arials are Relaxing
Ventricular Systole means Both Vintriculars are Contracting
T wave deflection is followed by Ventricular Diastole means Both Ventricles are Relaxing
Ventricular Fibrillation Heart is Failing/Dying.
Chapter 6 Function of the Blood Transport -Gas -Nutrient -Cellular Waste -Hormones -Vitamins -Proteins -Electrolytes -Regulation
Blood Transportation for Gases Carbon Dioxide (CO2) & Oxygen (O2)
Blood Transportation for Nutrients Glucose, Amino Acids
Blood Transportation for Cellular Waste Urine
Blood Transportation for Hormones Insulin, Glucagon, Somatostatin
Blood Transportation for Vitamins Vitamin-A Vitamin-B Vitamin-C Vitamin-D Vitamin-E Vitamin-K thiamine (B1) riboflavin (B2) niacin (B3) pantothenic acid (B5) pyroxidine (B6) biotin (B7) folate (B9) and cobalamin (B12).
Blood Transportation for Proteins Insulin Digestive Ezymes Coronin Elastin Lactase
Blood Transportation for Electrolytes Na, Ca, Cl, HCO3
Blood Transportation for Regulation Homeostasis, regulate Body Tempreature
4 vascular circuits total: Systemic Coronary Pulmonary Fetus
Systemic & Coronary Transport: Arteries & Oxygenated Blood
Pulmonary & Fetus Transport : Veins & Oxygenated Blood
Cardiovascular System is a Circut
Lymphatic System is Linear
Lymphatic System has Lymphatic Vessels & Lymphatic Organ
Lymphatic Organ consist of 2 Primary Systems: Primary Lymphatic System & Secondary Lymphactic System
Primary Lymphatic System consist: Red Bone Marrow
Secondary Lymphactic System consist: Spleen Lymph Vessel
Arrhythmia is Abnormal rythm of the heart.
ICD implantable cardioverter defibrillator
Blood contains Blood Plasma & Formed Element
Blood Plasma consist 92 % of water
Formed Elements Formed of Blood contians Erythrocytes, Leukocytes and Platelets
Erythrocytes are Red Blood cells without a nucleus and Mitochondria
Leukocytes are White Blood cells with one cell with a proper nucleus and part of the immune system.
Platelets are cells fragments (not cells)
Oxygen transport: 98.5% in RBCS
Oxygen contains: 15% in Blood Plasma
Carbon Dioxide transport: 70% as Bicarbonate
Carbon Dioxide transport: 23% by RBCS
Carbon Dioxide transport: 70% in Blood Plasma
CO2 Carbon Dioxide
H2O Water
H2CO3 Carbonic Acid
H2CO3(-) 70% Bicarbonate
H(+) Protons
2 Classes of Leukocytes: 1. Granulaur Leukocytes 2. Agranular Leukocytes
Granulaur Leukocytes has: Neutrophils; Esinophils; and Basophils
Agranular Leukocytes has: Lymphocytes, Monocytes, Macrophage
Lymphocytes has: B lymphocytes T lymphocytes
Prothrombin Proteins floating blood Plasma
Prothrombin Activator Thrombin will catalyze the conversion of Fibrogen
Fibrogen Protein floating in blood Plasma
Fibrin will clot the blood.
Blood Formed Elements Types A, B, A-B, and O
Blood for receiving for Blood Plasma for Type A Antibodies B
Blood for receiving for Blood Plasma for Type B Anabodies A-
Blood for receiving for Blood Plasma for Type A-B No Anabodies
Blood for receiving for Blood Plasma for Type O No Anabodies both A and B
Blood Type A can only accept RBCS (A)
Blood Type B can only accept RBCS (B)
Blood Type A-B can accept RBCS (A & B)
Blood Type O can only accept RBCS (O)
There are 2 organ systems: 1. Cardiovascular System 2. Lymphatic System
Cardiovasular System consist: Blood Vessels: arteries, capillaries, and veins
Lymphatic System consist: Lymphatic Vessels (veins like): have internl vavles to prevent Back Flow
The difference between the Cardiovascular System(CVS) & Lymphatic System(LS) (CVS) is a Circut & (LS) is Linear
Lymphatic System ex: Cells: Thymus Vessel: Red Bone Marrow Organs: Primary Lymphatic System Seconday Lymphatic System: Spleen & Lymphatic Vessels
Red Bone Marrow: Is the site of production of all types Formed Elements : Erthrocytes, Leukocytes, Plateles
Immune System: -Inmate/Non specific defense -Adaptive/ Acquired Specific Defense: developes after birth
Inmate/Non specific defense No Memory
Adaptive/ Acquired Specific Defense Has Memory
1st line of Defense (Physical Barriers) pt 1 Cutaneous Membrane & Mucous Membrane
Cutaneous Membrane consist of : The Skin
Mucous Membrane consist of: Respiratory, Digestive, Urinary, Reproductive
1st line of Defense (Chemical Barriers) pt 2 Sebums
Sebums secreated from sebacous gland
Sweat, Saliva, Tears have chemical that can neutralize microorganism
1st line of Defense pt3 (Resistive Barriers) Large Intestine
S "Cardinal Sign" of Inflammation -Red -Heat -Swelling -Pain -Loss of Function
Protective Barrier Complements Inferons
Complements punture the surface of Bacteria
Inferons one released by infected body cells to notify Non-infected body cells about presence of virus in the body
Humoral Immunity Is mediated by B-cells (B Lymphocytes)
Celluar Immunity Is mediated by T-cells (T Lymphocytes)
B Lymphocytes mediate into Plasma cells Produce & Release Antibodies are Proteins
Proteins coded by genes
There are 5 classes Ig (M), Ig (A), Ig(D), Ig(G), Ig(E)
Ig Immungoblin Antibody
Ig(A) Found in Mothers Milk
Ig (G) croses the placenta to protect the fetus
T Lymphocytes -helper T-cells (Th-cells) -Cytoxic T-cells (Tc-cells)
Th-cells control both arms of specific immune system
Tc-cells they kill cancer cells, transplated cells, Bacteria infected cells, Virus infected cells, Fungus infected cells
To kill Tc-cells they release 2 Chemicals 1. Perfourm 2. Granzymes
Granzymes induce cells to commit suicide. Fight off intercellular pathogens inside the body cells Effect only against Extracellular pathogens
Chapter 9 : Digestive System "Main function of the Digestive System": Is to breakdown ingested food we can absorb the nutrient
Humans cannot absorb: Proteins Carbohydrates & Lipids
Function for Proteins Will be digested/ broken down into their building block (amino acids) before we can absorb.
GI tract consist of 4 different type layers/tunes of tissue 1. Mucosa 2. Submucosa 3. Muscular 4. Serosa
Mucosa Mucous Membrane deals with: Food, Taste-Buds, Chyme, & Faces
Submucosa areolar connective tissue beneath the Mucous Membrane
Muscular Smooth Muscle
Serosa the tissue of a serous membrane.
Digestive System function Food, Mouth, Mastication (chewing), Bolus, Swallowing, Esophagus, & ingestion
Walls in the TOP of the Digestive System 1/3 Skeletal Muscle
Walls in the MIDDLE of the Digestive System 1/3 Skeletal & Smooth Muscle
Walls in the BOTTOM of the Digestive System 1/3 Smooth Muscle (only)
The Human Stomach converts bolus into chymes
Bolus function will be converted into chymes
3 layers of smooth muscle in the stomach 1.outer longitudinal 2. the middle circular 3. and the inner oblique muscles.
Chyme will transit through the entire small intestine -Duodenum(10 in) -Jejunum (8 ft) -Ileum (12 ft)
Jejunum absorb more than 90% of ALL available digested nutrients
Large Intestine function cecum, ascending colon, transverse colon, descending colon, sigmoid colon, rectum, anus
Internal Sphincter consist of Smooth Muscle
External Sphincter consist of Skeletal Muslce
Accessory Organs comes in direct contact with food or bolus teeth grows up to 20 during (childhood), grows up 32 in (adulthood)
4 quadrants arranged in the Accessory Organs : consist of 8 teeth quadrant 3 motors, 2 premotors, canine, later incisors
Enamel is the hardest substance in the human body stronger than bone.
Gallbladder (stores bile) is required to digest fat
Pancreas has (pancreatic juice) helps with digestion of proteins, carbohydrates, lipids, nucleic acids(DNA &RNA)
Pancreas contains: Bicarbonate neutalizes acidity from the stomach. Also has 1% of cells
Pancreas also ha Endocrine System: (Insulin & Glucogen) maintain Blood Glucose Homeostasis
Hormones are Chemical Messengers are: Released to kick start digestion proir to absorption
CCK Cholecystoknin
Bile helps Lipids/Fat digestion
(Starch/Polysaccharides)-> function for the Digestive System: Digest
Glucose/Monosaccharides)-> function for the Digestive System: Absorb
(Proteins) -> function for the Digestive System: Digest
(Amino Acids) function for the Digestive System: Absorb
(Lipids) function for the Digestive System: Digest
(Fatty Acids)-> (Monosaccharides) function for the Digestive System: Absorb
(Starch/Polysaccharides) ->(Maltose/Disaccharide)-> (H2O/Water)-> Hydrolysis Glucose/Monosaccharides
(Protein + H2O) -> Hydrolysis
(Peptides + H20) -> Hydrolysis
Amino Acids Absorbed
Chp 10 Respiratory System The respiratory system contains: Oxygen (O2) & Carbon Dioxide (CO2)
The Respiratory System is divided into 2 subdivisions of the Upper Respiratory Tract 1. Nose (Nasal Cavity) 2. Pharynx (Throat)
Nasal Cavity starts at the External Nares Front of the Nose
Nasal Cavity ends at the Internal Nares Back of the Nose
Upper Respiratory Tract is divided into 3 regions 1. Nasopharynx 2. Oropharynx 3. Laryngopharynx
Upper Respiratory Tract is lined up by a Mucous Membrane
Upper Respiratory Tract structure Ambient Air -> Nose (Nasal Cavity) -> Nasopharynx -> Oropharynx -> Laryngopharynx
Low Respiratory Tract start at the Larynx
Low Respiratory Tract are vocal cords to produce sound
Low Respiratory Tract structure built from Cartilage
Low Respiratory Tract contains 3 large total pieces: 1. Epiglottis 2. Thyriod Cartilage 3. Cricoid Cartilage
Trachea is built by incomplete Cartilage rings
Trachea contains smooth muscle called: Trachealis
Trachealis will: allow a large Bolus to go through our Esophagus
Bolus and Esophagus is located in the Back of the Trachea
Trachea is located in the Front of the Treacha
Trachea contains Unicellular Gland called Goblet Cells
Unicellular Gland consist Mucous Membrane
Goblet Cells secrete a protein called Mucin
Mucin Is mixed with water becomes Mucous
Mucous Is a filter system that prevents particles from getting into the lungs .
Larynx is split into 2 Bronchus 1. Right Primary Bronchus 2. Left Primary Bronchus
Right Primary Bronchus serves the Right Lungs
Left Primary Bronchus serves the Left Lungs
Right Primary Bronchus split into 3 Bronchus
Left Primary Bronchus split into 2 Bronchus
Each Alveolus is a microscopic structure that allows Gas exchanges between Oxygen (O2) and Carbon Dioxide (CO2)
Pulmonary function can be monitored by 2 sets of Data: Lung Volume Lung Capacity
Tidal Volume is the amount air being displaced by one Breath at rest
Inspirator Reserved Volume is the amount air being forcefully inhaled by one Breath at rest
inhaled volume for Inspirator Reserved Volume 2,900 ml ----------- 2.9 liters
exhaled volume for Inspirator Reserved Volume 1,200 ml ----------- 1.2 liters
Gas Exchanges for External Respiration for Oxygen (O2) Oxygen (O2) goes into the Blood Capillaries from alveoi.
Gas Exchanges for External Respiration for Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Carbon Dioxide (CO2) goes from Blood Capillaries from alveoi
Gas Exchanges for Internal Respiration for Oxygen (O2) Oxygen (O2) leaves the Blood Capillaries moves into body cells
Gas Exchanges for Internal Respiration for Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Carbon Dioxide (CO2) goes from Blood Capillaries from the body cells
H(+) /protons 70% HCO3 being transported into Blood in from
Breathing is water the control of 2 sources 1. Medulla Oblongata 2. Carbon Dioxide CO2
3 major functions of the Urinary System: 1. Producing Urine 2. Maintin Blood PH Homeostasis 3. Maintain Blood Pressure on a long term basis
Urinary Stystem function: 1. Producing Urine (2 kidneys) 2. Transporting Urine (2 ureters) 3. Storing Urine (Eliminating/ Disposing urine, 1 ureathra)
Left Kidneys is positioned slighty higher than the Right Kidney
Nephrons re microscopic structures that are responsible to produce urine.
Each kidneys contains 1 milion nephrons cells at Birth.
Each Kidney contains 2 types of Nephrons 1. Cortical Kidneys 2. Juxtamedullary Kidneys
Cortical Kidneys consist 85%
Juxtamedullary Kidneys consist 15%
Cortical Kidneys reponsible to dilute urine. with good hydration
Kidneys transportation both kidney are design to transport to a single urinary bladder.
Both Right & Left Kidneys their walls contain smooth muscle
Smooth Muslce of the Kidney Contract the move urine towards the bladder smooth muscle contrction called perstsis
Single organ called Urinry Bladder contins a thick layers of smooth muscle called Detusor Muscle
Urinary Bladder contains 500ml
Urinary Bladder has 2 circular muscle: 1. Internal Sphincter 2. External Sphincter
Internal Sphincter is Smooth Muscle & Invoultary Control
External Sphincter is Skeletal Muscle & Voluntary Control
Ureathra single organ that is responsible for eliminating & disposing urine
Femle Ureathra is only used by the Urinary System
Male Ureathra is being shared by 2 organ systems 1. Urinary System 2. Reproductive System
3 regions of the Male Ureathra: 1. Prostatic Ureathra 2. Membraneous Ureathra 3. Spongy/ Penile Ureathra
Urine Formation consist of Reanal Corpuscle Proximal Convoluted Tubles Loop of Henles
Urine Formation is preformed by Nephrons
Urinary Formation goes through 3 Stages 1. Glomerular Filration (PCT) 2. Tubular Reabsorption (PCT) 3. Tubular Secration (DCT)
Loop of Henles consist Short Juxtamedullary Long Juxtamedullary
Short Juxtamedullary consist 85%
Long Juxtamedullary consist 15%
Glomerularis is Blood Capillary
Both Kidneys dispose only cellular waste- they keep retain / reaborb to improtant chemical : Glucose, Amino Acids, H20, Sodium (Na)
Kidneys reabsorb 99.5% sodium
Kidneys reabsorb 99% Water
Cellular Waste helps to contract urine to eliminate/dispose the urine
Acid/Base Balance 1. BBS) Blood Plasma 2. Respiratory System 3. Kidneys
The Most powerful of 3 mechanismm to maintain Blood PH Homeostasis it the only meachanism able to dispose/eliminate H(+)/protons from the body Kidneys
Created by: clardy rodney



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