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Biology Chapter 4

Biology Chapter 4: Ecosystems

measurement of the number of individuals living in a defined space population density
how do you find population density number of individuals/area
how a population is spread in an area population dispersion
individuals gather into groups where resources are available clumped
what is an example of a clumped population dispersion school of fish
what are the advantages of a clumped population dispersion protects individuals from predators
same species must compete for limited resources and territory uniform
what is an example of uniform dispersion nesting penguins being territorial over eggs
resources evenly distributed random
what is an example of random population dispersion sloth in tropical forest
what are the advantages of random population dispersion no competition and few predators
what affects population growth birth, death, and migration
moving into an area immigration
moving out of an area emigration
population size increases dramatically over short period of time exponential growth
what are causes of exponential growth available resources and space
population begins with slow growth, followed by exponential growth before leveling off at a stable size logistic growth
what are the factors of logistic growth resources are reduced and growth slows down
max population size of a species that an environment can normally support in terms of resources carrying capacity
can the carrying capacity change at any time yes
example of how carrying capacity can change at any time flooding can reduce shelter
factors that are affected by the number of individuals in an area density dependent
what are examples of density dependent factors predation, competiton, disease
factors that can impact a population regardless of its density density independent
what are examples of density independent factors natural disasters, human impacts-deforestation
sequence of biotic changes that restore a damaged community or create a community ecological succession
establishment and development of an ecosystem in an area that was previously uninhabited primary succession
first organisms that moves into an area pioneer species
reestablishment of an ecosystem in an area where the soil was left intact secondary succession
what are some things that could cause secondary succession fire or flood
role an organism has in the ecosystem niche
what 3 things affect a niche abiotic factors, food source, behavior
relationship between 2 species symbosis
where both organisms benefit mutualism
example of mutualism deer and bird
1 organism benefits the other is neither helped nor harmed commensalism
example of commensalism whale and barnacle
1 organism benefits the other is harmed parasitism
example of parasitism tapeworms and humans
species that can change an ecosystem drastically keystone species
what kind of succession is it if a flash flood sweeps through a desert leaving nothing but bare land secondary succession
what kind of succession is it if a fire comes through a forest and burns all the plant life secondary succession
what kind of succession is it if a glacier scrapes the earth as it moves by primary succession
what kind of succession is it if grasses and other small plants begin to grow secondary succession
what is an example of a keystone species wolves in Yellowstone National Park
Created by: dancer2024