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BIOL 205

Genetics Midterm 1

QuestionAnswer
What is DNA? Deoxyribonucleic acid is the genetic code of humans, It is a strand-like macromolecule of numerous nucleotides (nt), each composed of a deoxyribose sugar and a phosphate group (structural) and a base (carriers of genetic info ir. nitrogenous base)
What are the purine bases? adenine and guanine
What are the pyrimidine bases? thymine What and cytosine
What is the pyrimidine base used in RNA instead of thymine? Uracil
What are some characteristics of DNA? (3) 1. Double strand of TWO complementary nucleotide chains 2. The 5' to 3' strand complements the sequence of 3' to 5' strand 3. The 2 nucleotide chains run antiparallel (backbones run opposite directions)
How many hydrogen bonds are located between A and T bases? 2 hydrogen bonds
How many hydrogen bonds are located between G and C bases? 3 hydrogen bonds
What structure is a purine base? double-ring structure
What structure is a pyrimidine base? single-ring
What are the differences between the somatic cells and germ cells? Somatic: 1. Mitosis -> development, gene expression, gene function Germ Cells: 1. Meiosis -> inheritance, evolution
What are the characteristics of the soma? 1. muscle fibers 2. Nuclear DNA is DIPLOID 3. 2 chromosome sets that are different for each parent, can see boundaries between cells 4. Mitochondrial DNA: found in cytoplasm, small circular genome
What are the characteristics of a germline? 1. Nuclear DNA is HAPLOID 2. 1 chromosome set, different from parent cells and each other i.e could have different allele and gene compared to sperm beside it 3. Mitochondrial DNA: inherited via egg only. Males do not contribute.
What did Watson and Crick discover in 1953? They recognized the three-dimensional structure of DNA from which they could deduce the mechanism of its replication that allows the reliable transmission of genetic info from one generation to the next.
What aids the process of Replication? (4) The multi-enzyme complex containing helicases, topoisomerases, various DNA polymerases and other protein.
What are Helicases? Enzyme that start replication by unwinding the DNA bidirectionally, leading to the seperation of the hydrogen bonds and, in effect, the two chains. this creates two "replication forks"
What are Topiosomerases? Enzymes that prevent a super coiling of the DNA helix during unwinding and separation because they are capable of cutting individual strands, permitting them to unwind
What are Ligases? Enzymes that splice cut DNA pieces (during replication)
What are Polymerases? Enzymes that synthesize DNA or RNA strands
Describe the process of Replication. 1. Proceeds from starting point in both directions of the replicons. 2. begins with a complementary RNA primer formed by polymerase alpha and later cut out and replaced by DNA. 3. New DNA is synthesized in a 5' to 3' direction.
Why can new DNA only be synthesized in a 5' to 3' direction? only the 3' end of the growing chain can the next nucleotide be attached. Therefore only 1 of the unwinding DNA parent strands (the leading strand) allows continuous synthesis in the 5' to 3' direction.
What do we call a lagging strand of DNA that is 5' to 3' replicated discontinuously (backwards) in small 200 bp fragments? Okazaki fragments
What happens with Okazaki fragments during replication? each fragment needs a new RNA primer, and after replication, adjacent fragments are linked by a DNA ligase.
What is the purpose of proofreading function of DNA polymerase? 1. Identifies errors 2.cuts out faulty bases and replaces with correct bases
What is the result of replication? (the products) 2 daughter DNA molecules
Why is a virus considered not alive? does not have its own metabolism composed of 9 genes require a host to survive no meiosis
What is a genotype? genetic make up of a cell ie. refers to basic sequence or copy number or alleles of gene present how many copies do we have? 2! (mom and dad)
What is a phenotype? cells/individuals observable or measurable units/traits
Do 4 tissues/organelles have same genotype? No, the genotypes are the same but the gene expression is different ex. genome from stomach and eye will have the same genome but with small mutations
What is gene expression? turning on (alleles of) a gene to produce its product.
What two products do genes produce? RNA and Proteins
Variation in genotype 1. variation can lead to variation in phenotype or sometimes there is no change (ie. Dominant allele) 2.Environmental Input (ie. height growth due to nutrition) 3.genome sequence trial - not every genotype will change a phenotype
What is a gene? a functional unit in the genome that contains the genetic info for one or more gene products
A protein coding gene is composed of what? 1. the coding sequence 2. regulatory sequences 3. useless sequences
What is a pseudogene? DNA sequences that have all the characteristics of a potential encoding transcription unit but which encode for no funtional product.
What is gene expression patterns? ` the particular set of alleles/genes that is turned on or off in a given context. Environmental input may affect
Variation in gene expression patterns may lead to what? variation in phenotype
What is the sense strand? The DNA strand which (except Ts and Us) corresponds to the RNA sequence
The complement of the sense strand is what? the antisense strand which is a template for RNA biosynthesis
What lies at the start of the gene? the promoter region
what is the promoter region? serves as a docking station for various specific transcription factors and an RNA polymerase that represents the transcription initiation complex.
Name a classic promoter sequence. TATA box -> situated 25 nucleotides upstream of the transcription start site.
What is a transcriptome? complete set of RNA molecules in a population of cells.
What do you call the sequence before the start codon and after the stop codon of a gene? untranslated regions (UTR)
what is the coding region? the part of the gene that is translated into protein
exons? coding sequences in the pre-mRNA that are seperated by noncoding introns
introns? non-coding sequences in a gene that are poitioned between coding sequences and are removed by splicing from the pre-mRNA transcript
UTRs? the part of the gene that is transcribed and included in the matter mRNA but is not translated into a protein.
What is a telomere? the ends of the chromosomes that consist of numerous tandem repeats of 5'-TTAGGG-3' sequence . protect end of chromosomes a countdown, tells cell when to stop dividing.
What are the 3 classes of Tandem Repeats? 1. Short Tandem repeats (STRs): tandem repeats with a unit size of 2 to 6 nt. 2. Minisatellites (variable number tandem repeats): Tandem rep. with a unit size 10 to 60 nt. 3.Satellite DNA: 60 to 200 nt that create important structures like centromeres
What are copy number variants (CNV)? segments (1 kb-1Mb) of chromosomes that repeat in different multiples among individuals. (variation in the # times that the variation appears)
What is the central dogma? the info flow from nucleic acid to protein.
why are we so concerned with prions? prions are misfolded proteins (mad cow disease)
What was Chargaff's Rules? in any organism the amount of purines = the amount of pyrimidines AND the amount of T=A, amount of G=C
How do we determine Directionality? determined by carbon position of phosphate attachment
Created by: courtneycameron