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Biology Chapter 5

Chapter 5 vocabulary 2

Biochemical pathway Metabolic pathway. Begin with a particular reactant and terminate with an end product.
Enzymes Usually protein molecules that function as organic catalysts to speed chemical reactions.
Substrates The reactant molecules that the enzyme acts on.
Active site Region on the surface of an enzyme where the substrate binds and where the reaction occurs.
Energy of activation (Ea) The energy needed to cause molecules to react with one another.
Feedback inhibition Mechanism for regulating metabolic pathways in which concentration of the product is kept within a certain range until binding of the substrate to the enzymes active site reduces or stops the activity of the pathway.
Diffusion molecules move down their concentration gradient until equilibrium is achieved and are distributed equally.
Solution Contains both a solute and a solvent.
Solute Usually solids or gases like dyes.
Solvent Usually liquids
Facilitated diffusion Molecules diffuse across a plasma membrane through a channel protein or with the assistance of carrier proteins.
Aquaporins Channel proteins for water
Osmosis Is the diffusion of water across semipermeable membrane from an area of high concentration to an area of lower concentration. Often uses aquaporins.
Hypotonic solution Water moves from areas of low solute concentration.
Hypertonic solution Water moves from areas of high solute concentration.
Isotonic solution Have equal solute concentrations; the cell never gains or loses water.
Lysis Disrupted cells.
Hemolysis Disrupted red blood cells.
Selectively permeable Certain substances that can freely pass through the membrane, some are transported across, others are prohibited from entering or leaving.
Passive transport Substances move from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration and no energy is required.
Created by: jwatts1