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Biology Chapter 5

Chapter 5 vocabulary 1

Energy The capacity to do work.
Potential energy Stored energy
Kinetic energy Energy in motion
Calorie The amount of heat required to raise the temp of 1 gram of water by 1 degree C.
Kilocalories 1,000 calories (C)
1st law of thermodynamics Conservation of energy or energy cannot be created or destroyed but it can be changed from one form to another form.
2nd law of thermodynamics Energy cannot be changed from one form to another form without a loss of usable energy.
3rd law of thermodynamics Entropy-disorganized. All lost heat/energy goes up.
Heat Diffuse energy and lease usable form
ATP Energy currency of cells. Contains sugar ribose, nitrogen-containing base adenine, and 3 phosphate groups that are negatively charged.
ATP cycle The continual breakdown and regeneration of ATP.
Coupled reaction They allow the energy releasing reaction to provide the energy needed to start the energy-requiring reaction.
Photosynthesis Process occurring usually when chloroplasts, where by chlorophyll-containing organelles trap solar energy to reduce carbon dioxide to carbohydrates.
Chloroplast Membrane-bound organelle in algae and plants with chlorophyll-containing membranous thylakoids; where photosynthesis takes place.
Chlorophyll Green pigment that absorbs solar energy and is important in algal and plant photosynthesis.
Thylakoid Flattened sac within a granum whose membrane contains chlorophyll and where the light reactions of photosynthesis occur.
Cellular respiration Metabolic reaction that uses the energy from the breakdown of carbohydrates (primarily glucose), fatty acids, or amino acids to produce ATP molecules. Consist of a series of reactions that produce the end products of energy.
Metabolic pathway The chemical reaction in a cell are linked to occur in a particular order. In the pathway, one reaction leads to the next reaction, which leads to the next reaction, and so forth, in an organized, highly structured manner.
Created by: jwatts1