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Botany Exam 1

Botany Botany is the study of plants (plant biology)
Plant Anatomy and Morphology -Cellular components, types of cells and organization into plant tissue. Solve crimes (certain plants are found only in certain areas, can tell where a victim is
Paleobotany (part of archaeology) Plant fossils, pollen grains distinct-where plants were sowed
Dendrochronology Width and other features of tree rings. Ability to tell past climates
Epiphyte Grow on other plants
Plant physiology and metabolism Function and nutritional needs of plant (conduct water)
Plant Taxonomy Classification of plants
Ecology and ethnobotany (practical uses of plants + products - natural products) Interaction of plants with each other and environment. Greenhouse effect; cutting down of trees; loss of habitat
Cells Cytoplasm, cell membrane, DNA/RNA
Growth up mass
Reproduction produce of offspring (asexual and sexual)
Movement cytoplasmic streaming (within cells) stem grows towards light roots grow towards dark and water
Respond to Stimulus light, temperature (gets too hot, stomata closes- wilt), gravity
Callose when attacked/pierced produce a plugging substance. A mass of undifferentiated cells
Metabolize Respiration (releases energy) Photosynthesis (makes food) Digestion (conversion of large to small molecules) Assimilation (conversion of raw materials into cell components)
Adapt to Environment Survival of fittest
Matter Basic part of life
What is matter? Solid, liquid, gas Occupies space Has mass (weight) Composed of elements
Hydrogen Part of most organic compound (water)
Oxygen necessary for respiration and also part of water
Carbon Skeleton of most organisms, part of most organic compound
Nitrogen Part of amino acids (proteins(, nucleic acids (DNA, RNA) chlorophyll
Potassium Part of ATP (cells store energy) part of DNA, RNA
Magnesium Basic element of chlorophyll; cofactor for several enzymes
Atom Smallest part of an element
Atomic Number Number of protons
Atomic mass Number of protons and neutrons
1st orbital 2 electrons
2nd, 3rd, etc orbital Up to 8 electrons
Needs Energy To go from 1st to 2nd to 3rd
Releases energy from 3rd to 2nd to 1st
Isotope An element that exists in 2 or more forms due to a difference in the amount of neutrons
Compound two or more elements forming a definite bond
Water considered a polar molecule has unequal charges
Cohesion Two or more water molecules attract to each other. One of the reasons water sticks together and can flow up the stem
Molecule Smallest independently existing compound or element (O2)
Monosaccharides (Carbohydrate) Simplest type, glucose and fructose C6H12O6
Isomer Same # of elements but different structures
Disaccharides (Carbohydrate) 2 monosaccharides Sucrose = glucose + fructose Form in which some plants store energy. (sugarcane/beet)
Dehydration Removal of water Needs energy and an enzyme
Hydrolysis Addition of water Releases energy and an enzyme
Polysaccharides (Carbohydrate) Several monosaccharides (monomers: repeating units)
Starch Made up of branched glucose. Used as storage. In this form energy stored in seeds for germination, modified roots, stems C6H10O5
Cellulose Structural polymer Unbranched glucose Tension to cell walls We cannot digest cellulose
Fatty acids + glycerol (lipids) 3 c with 3 OH groups Most insoluble in water because not polar Energy rich Fats (solid at RT) Oils (liquid at RT)
Saturated Many animal lipid H atoms attached to every carbon atom
Unsaturated At least 1 double bond Less H atoms
Polyunsaturated Vegetable oils 3 or more double bonds
Waxes No glycerol, only fatty acids and alcohol Solid at RT Embedded in cutin and suberin (also impt lipids) Surface of plant leaves Repel water, protect against microorganisms
Phospholipids 2 fatty acids, 1 glycerol 1 of the fatty acid chain replaced by a phosphate group Can be polar due to phosphate (-vely charged) Can repel/attract some compounds Polar head dissolves in water Important part of membrane
Amino acids/polypeptides/proteins consists of C, H, O, N and sometimes S 20 usable amino acids Various combinations in each polypeptide/proteins Each amino acid has amino group (-NH2) and a carboxyl group (-COOH) Also has a R group
Glycine Simplest amino acid
Peptide bond Polypeptides are chains of amino acids joined by a peptide bond Plants can make their own amino acids, but animals make only a few so have to get from plants
Proteins Proteins are formed from polypeptides + simple sugars + other materials Regulate chemical reactions e.g. enzymes
Storage Proteins Source of energy (potato and onion)
Primary Structure of Proteins Sequence of amino acids Maintained by peptide bonds
Secondary Structure of Proteins Interactions amongst a.a. along chain as the chain elongates Maintained by H bonds
Two Main Secondary Structures Alpha helix (Spiral staircase) Beta pleated sheet
Tertiary Structure Only time it's functional Active structure of proteins Polypeptide further coils and folds Structure maintained by bonds between R groups
Tertiary Structure Bonds are weak, so easily broken (denatured) by heat and acid/base When denatured, they lose their tertiary structure and lose activity Seen when egg white is cooked, call coagulation
Quaternary Structure Also functional in this state Having more than 1 kind of polypeptide Not every structure has it
Enzymes Essential for life Mainly large complex proteins Some can be nucleic acids (RNA) Enzymes are specific to substrate (lock and key model) Enzyme + substrate form a complex
Enzymes Function as organic catalyst by changing the rate of chemical reactions under specific pH (buffer) and temp, but remain unchanged so they can be used over and over again (eventually are degraded)
Enzymes Substrate -----> (enzyme) product Enzyme = ase
Sucrase (Invertase) Name of the enzyme that changes sucrose into glucose and fructose
Enzymes Without enzymes, most reactions will not take place (or too long), too much E is needed to go from substrate to product.
Energy of Activation Enzyme lowers the energy needed In the lab can use heat to lower E of activation (speed up reaction) In cells there are hundreds of reactions occurring simultaneously, and too much heat will kill the cell so use enzymes
Nucleic acids Information that directs everything in cell 3 subunits Chains of molecules called nucleotides
Phosphate group (Phosphoric acid) gives the nucleic acid
a 5 C Sugar Fibrose or deoxyribose
Fructose Sugar that has a similar structure to ribose/deoxyribose
Nitrogenous Base Cytosine, Adenine, Thiamine, Glycine (DNA) Cytosine, Adenine, Uracil, Glycine (RNA) DNA has an H RNA has an OH
DNA/RNA Negatively charged because of phosphate group (polar and dissolves in water)
DNA Helix DNA consists of two chains of nucleotides coiled around each other DNA is the longest and largest macromolecule in cell DNA is the carrier of genetic material Organized in genes and DNA is inherited
RNA RNA consists of 1 chains of nucleotides
Central Dogma DNA is used to make RNA. RNA is used to make proteins
Cells 1st seen by Robert Hooke in 1665 Developed primitive microscope Examined cork in wine bottle Noticed that in the cork, saw small cavities separated by walls Resembled little rooms
Cell Theory All living organisms composed of 1 or more cells All chemical reactions take place in a cell Calls arise from other cells Hereditary information passed from parent to daughter cells Cells are the structural bases of organization
Light Microscope Similar to ones developed by Robert Hooke
Dissecting Light Microscope 3 dimensional viewing 30X
Compound Light Microscope Slice tissues (fix and dye tissues) or small living organisms observed Best is 1500X
Electron Microscope a. electromagnetic beams instead of visible light b. developed over the last 100 years
Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM) Sliced very thin, no living organisms- has to fix tissues 200,000X- great detail within cell Very sensitive and very, very expensive Very tedious Needs an earthquake proof room
Scanning Tunneling Microscope (Type of TEM) Uses a probe that tunnels electrons upon a sample Produces a map of sample surface Even atoms can become discernible First picture of DNA segment showing helical structure
Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) No living organisms- may "fix" tissues Surface detail of objects( e.g. hair and skin, stem, leaf, pollen surface) 10,000X Expensive
Common Features of Cells (A) Outer membrane (plasma/cell membrane) (A) Isolate cell from external environment (B) Genetic material (B) direct cell activity (B) Produce other cell [Sexual or asexual (clones) reproduction]
No Cell Membrane No ability to maintain pH, temp, metabolism (Very important for enzymes)
Prokaryotic Large, circular chromosome of DNA with proteins loosely associated No nuclei (no nuclear membrane) Bacterium, Virus
Eukaryotic Chromosome surrounded by a envelop separating it from rest of cells Chromosomes within nucleus Plant cells, animal cells
Cell Size 10-100 micron (micrometer) A lot of cells make up an organism (multicellular) If volume increases too much, it does not allow rapid communication within cells (larger organisms have to develop nervous system) Cytoplasmic streaming
Cell Wall Distinguishes plant cell from animal cell Defines size + shape of cell due to its rigidity Texture and final form of organ Prevents rupture of cell wen absorbing water
Cell Wall Helps defend against bacterial/viral and fungal pathogens Plant cell types identified by structure of walls Made up of cellulose microfibrils
Cellulose Polysaccharide (unbranced glucose)
Hemicellulose Holds the matrix of cellulose microfibrils together
Pectin Glue
Glycoproteins Proteins + Sugar
Lignin (phenol) Strength + Stiffness Waterproofs cells Used in areas where plants need extra support Also have cutin, suberin and waxes (fats Dead
Support Plants need support in their stems and branches
Formation of Cell Wall Two adjacent cells (plasma membrane) Pectin is deposited to form a middle lamella Deposition of cellulose, hemicellulose, glycoproteins and water
Primary Cell Wall Deposited before and during growth Flexible Cells that are actively growing have only a primary cell wall
Actively Growing Tissues Areas of actively growing tissues are the roots and shoot tips/nodes
Primary Cell Walls Are not uniform thickness Have thin areas Usually permeable Allows slower movement of water and other dissolved substances
Plasmodesmata Tiny strands of cytoplasm which connect 1 cell to another Allow substances to pass from one cell to the next
Secondary Cell Wall Contain more cellulose + lignin than primary cell wall May lack pectin, no glycoproteins
Plasma Membrane Outer border of cell Made up of phospholipids Also have protein and carbohydrates embedded in it Prevents/ allows transport of substances in/out of cell Coordinates synthesis of cellulose microfibrils
Plasma Membrane Receives/ transmits signals involved in growth and differentiation
Nucleus Most prominent structure in many cells Control center Membrane hound (nuclear envelope)
Nucleus Permits only certain substances to enter/leave Proteins + enzymes enter RNA leaves
Nucleoplasm Granular matrix
The Nucleolus RNA + proteins Light microscope usually can only see the nucleus
Chromatin (DNA + Histone protein) When cell is dividing, chromatin becomes thicker Called chromosomes
Arabidopists thaliana 10 chromosomes
Ophioglossum 1.260 chromosomes
Homo sapiens 46 chromosomes
Triticum vulgare 42 chromosomes bread wheat
Chromosomes Size and complexity of an organism is not related to the # of chromsomes # of chromosomes in sex cells is 1/2 the # of somatic cells Vegetative (or somatic) in plants
Sex cells in plants Pollen grains and ovules
Plastids Distinguishes plant from animal cells develop from proplastids (small colorless/pale green organelles) Develop from mature plastids Contain DNA Membrane bound
Chloroplasts Sites of photosynthesis Contain chlorophyll + carotenoid (yellow/red pigments - color of leaves and ripe fruits) Each cell of higher plants have more than 40
Chromoplasts Lack chlorophyll Have carotenoids May develop from chloroplast Attract insects during pollination
Leucoplasts (amyloplasts) Lack pigments Synthesize starch (and store oils) (potatoes)
Invagination Folding of inner membranes Greater surface area
Mitochondria Site of respiration Make ATP Contains DNA Membrane bound
Endosymbiont Theory Chloroplasts and mitochondria are ancient organisms Invaded plant cells were taken up Symbiotic relationship Plant cells provide a home, safety Chloroplast make food, and mitochondria produce energy Extra energy
Mitochondria and Chloroplast were organisms Have DNA (prokaryotic)
Vacuole Most prominent in plant cells Distinguishes plant from animal cell Membrane bound (tonoplast) with a liquid (cell sap) Maintains osmotic potential within cells Has water, inorganic ions e.g. K+, sugars, acids
Vacuole Stores secondary compounds Has water soluble pigments (anthocyanin) (red/blue/purple color of flowers) (E.g. turnip, grapes, cherries, roses) Responsible for many color changes in the fall
Vacuole Stores water Breakdown + recyceling of plastids and mitochondra In young cells a lot of vacuoles As cell ages, unite to form 1 or 2 large vacuoles
Diffusion Movement of molecules/ions from region of high concentration to a region of low concentrations Spraying perfume in the air Moving along a diffusion gradient Once evenly distributed, equilibrium is achieved No energy needed
Diffusion Dependent on temperature, size of molecules, density of medium Speed up movement of the molecules One of the ways in which substances pass into the cell No energy needed
Osmosis A special case of diffusion Diffusion of H2O through a semi-permeable membrane Movement of water molecules from a region of high concentration to a region of low concentration No energy needed
Osmotic Potential Can prevent osmosis by applying pressure Defined as the pressure to stop osmosis All cells have an osmotic potential (solute potential) Or they would burst quickly if placed in water
Turgor Pressure Water enters the cell by osmosis Increased water into the cell makes the cell firm or turgid Cell wall and vacuole of the plant exerts a pressure that stops too much water from entering the cell)
Turgor Pressure Turgor pressure or pressure potential A typical cell is in a turgid state
Water Potential Osmotic potential + turgor pressure (pressure potential) = water potential Water moves from a region/cell of higher water potential to a region/cell of low water potential
More water in plant cell than outside the cell The cell would lose water; the plasma membrane would pull away from the cell wall
Plasmolysis Loss of water, pulling away of the plasma membrane from the cell wall
Isotonic Same amount of dissolved substances (solute) per unit volume Concentration of the cell and the solution are the same So no net movement of water from solution to cell
Hypotonic less solute, more water
Hypertonic More solute, less water
If you placed a plant cell in a hypotonic and hypertonic solution, what would happen? Hypotonic; turgidity Hypertonic; plasmolysis
Imbibition Water is a polar molecule It is attracted to other polar molecules (whether +vely or -vely charged) Defined as the movement of water into large polar organic molecules
Imbibition Seeds have large polar organic molecules During germination, water enters by osmosis and also by imbibition A tremendous force is exerted by the swelling of the tissue, breaks open the seed coat
Active Transport Movement of solutes or ions against a diffusion/eletrical gradient with the use of energy Controlled by transport proteins (pumps) present in the membranes
Tissues Cells are grouped together to form tissues
Meristematic cells: Most important Areas of permanent active cell division Undergo mitosis Young tissues
Meristematic cells: These cells are: small, large nucleus, tiny/no vacuoles Very little air spaces between them less than 10 layers of them
Apical Meristem Found at the tips of roots and shoots Elongation of roots and shoots Responsible for primary growth
Apical Meristem Plants continue to grow during their life cycle Produce secondary tissues Large nucleus under microscope
Primary Meristems Apical meristems develop into primary meristems 3 types
The Protoderm (Primary Meristem) Differentiate into the epidermis
The Procambium (Primary Meristem) Differentiate into primary xylem and phloem
The Ground Meristem (Primary Meristem) Differentiate into pith and cortex
Lateral Meristem (Dicots) Increase the width/girth of roots and stems (secondary growth) Increased of strength and stability
Vascular Cambium (Lateral Meristem) Found in roots/stems of perennial (woody) plants and many annuals Produces secondary phloem and xylem Dendrochronology
The Cork Cambium (Lateral Meristem) Found in roots/stems Makes cells impervious to moisture Outer bark of woody plants
The Intercalary Meristem (monocots) Grasses No secondary growth Near the nodes and add to stem length
Simple Tissues only 1 type of cells 3 main types of simple tissues
Parenchyma (ST) Most abundant (typical plant cell) Can become meristematic Cortex/pith of stems/roots, flesh of fruits Leaf
Parenchyma (ST) Various shapes, large vacuoles, primary cell wall, large air spaces between them Storage of starch grains Secretion of oils and crystals
Chlorenchyma If have chloroplasts (where photosynthesis takes place)
Transfer Cells (specialized parenchyma) Develop irregular folding that greatly increase surface area of plasma membrane Nectaries of flowers (attract insects) Glands of carnivorous plants (venus flytrap)
Collenchyma (ST) Living at maturity Elongated cells, thicker primary cell wall Support for young growing + mature organs Veins of plants
Sclerenchyma (ST) Lack protoplast at maturity, DEAD Thick tough lignified secondary cell wall Strength
Fibers (Sclerenchyma) Long, slender cells occurring in bands/bundles Stems of help for ropes
Sclereids (Sclerenchyma) Smaller cells found in aggregates throughout the cortex and the seed coats of plants Gritty part of fruits (pears)
Complex Tissues More than 1 type of cells
Vascular Tissues (CT) Produced by the vascular cambium
Xylem Water conducting tissues: fibers + vessels Also has parenchyma and ray cells
Xylem Vessels Mainly found in flowering plants Elongated cells Thick secondary walls (lignin) No cytoplasm at maturity
Xylem Vessels May have pits and perforations to allow water to move from one cell to the next (as these areas there are no cell walls) No cytoplasm
Tracheids (dead) Xylem Mainly found in gymnosperms Cone bearing plants with no flowers (pine, fir) Elongated cells Tapered at each end Thick secondary cell walls Have pits where they come in contact with each other
Rays (living) Xylem Parenchyma cells that are living Allow sideways movement of water Food storage
Phloem Two types of cells
Sieve tube members (phloem) Laid end to end No openings at end walls, just pores No nuclei, living cytoplasm Movement of food
Companion Cells Associated with sieve tube members Have nuclei Have cytoplasmic connestions (plasmodesmata) to sieve tube members Regulated the sieve tube members
Sieve Tube When a sieve tube member is pierced, a polymer (callose) precipitates to form a callus plug that stops leakage
Epidermis Outermost layer of cells Usually 1 cell thick Different types of cells Usually no chloroplasts
Secretory cells (epidermis) Produce cutin
Guard cells (epidermis) Regulate stomatal opening (have chloroplasts)
Trichomes (epidermis) Hairs- Trap insects (do not like hairs), absorb water Root hairs- absorption of water and minerals Hairs on leaf- lower water loss, decrease temp
Woody Stems Produced from secondary growth
Periderm (woody) Replaces epidermis Outer bark (cells present are called cork cells) Dead at maturity Protect stem from water loss, injury, insects
Lenticels (woody) Holes in bark where gas exchange takes place
Turgor Pressure exerted by cell wall
Meristematic Type of cell/tissue that undergoes mitosis
Lignin Phenolic compound; dead
Created by: rrawls914
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