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Genetic Engineering

What is genetic engineering? A process by which the genomes of organisms are changed by direct manipulation of their DNA. Genetic engineering uses recombinant DNA technology to alter one or more genes.
True or False: Genetic engineering is used in research to study genes and to predict their function. It can be used to alter the gene that codes for a specific protein in an organism. True.
True or False: Genetic engineering can not be used to study the genomes of organisms. False.
Explain genomics. Genomics includes identifying which genes are essential and which are not.
Explain the most common form of genetic engineering. The most common form of genetic engineering involves putting a gene from one species into a genome of another. This creates a transgenic organism.
Explain the first step used in creating transgenic organisms. An organism with the desirable trait must be located. This organism will donate the DNA. It is the donor organism. Sometimes a gene will be synthesized, but most commonly it is extracted from a donor organism.
Explain the second step used in creating transgenic organisms. The gene that controls the trait for disease resistance must be identified and isolated. To isolate the gene, the DNA of the organism with the desirable trait is extracted and cut up using restriction enzymes. Then they are separated and cloned.
What are restriction enzymes? Restriction enzymes are enzymes that cut DNA at specific nucleotide sequences.
What is the third step used in creating transgenic organisms? Getting the gene ready to enter the target organism. Commonly done by incorporating the gene into a plasmid. When selecting the DNA, it is important to ensure that it also contains all the control sequences required to replicate and express the gene.
What are plasmids? Plasmids are short rings of DNA, usually obtained from bacteria or phage viruses.
Explain the fourth step used in creating transgenic organisms? The plasmid is inserted into the target organism and incorporated into its genome. This is called transformation in plants and transfection in animals. The cells being targeted are grown in cell cultures.
True or False: Generally, it is easier to insert genes into plant, yeast, and bacterial cells, rather than animal cells. Some bacteria and yeast will simply take up the foreign DNA. True.
How can cells be encouraged to take up DNA? By stressing them: Cells may be heated, starved, electrocuted, or treated with chemicals.
Explain the fifth step used in creating transgenic organisms. Once inside the cell, some of the plasmids may incorporate their DNA into the host’s genome. The cells in the culture can be grown. Markers are used to identify cells that contain the incorporated DNA. These are then cultured separately.
True or False: Genetic engineering is currently used to mass produce many of the hormones, antibodies, and vaccines necessary to maintain human health. True.
True or False: Genetic engineering has led to great advancements for treatments of diabetes, cancer, hemophilia A, and growth hormone deficiencies. True.
Explain gene therapy. The introduction of cloned genes into living cells to replace an abnormal, disease-causing gene
True or False: Huntington's disease has been treated by use of gene therapy. True.
True or False: Scientists have not been able to use genetic engineering to protect food crops against fungi, insects, and other harmful agents. False. They have been able to.
How do scientists produce transgenic crops? Scientists transfer desirable genetic traits from one species to another.
True or False: Genetic engineering may be able to help reduce human reliance on fossil fuels. True!
How can genetic engineering protect the environment from deforestation? Plant researchers have discovered ways to alter the genetic makeup of trees. The alterations produce stronger, faster-growing trees. The trees mature rapidly prior to being cut down for wood.
True or False: Genetic engineering can even be used to create safer chemicals and solvents that have fewer long-lasting negative effects on the environment. True.
Which of the following is least likely to be accomplished by genetic engineering: make plants grow bigger, produce more food, resist insects, grow without water. Grow without water.
Which is not a limitation of gene therapy: has not been proven effective for many diseases, is very expensive, involves risks, prescription drugs are better for most genetic disorders. Prescription drugs are better for most genetic disorders
The creation of transgenic organisms has had which one of the following impacts: increased agricultural productivity, created new disease causing organisms, killed wild birds, enabled beef to be grown in the lab Increased agricultural productivity
To produce plants that are resistant to insects, scientists might introduce a gene from ____________. Other plants that are resistant to insects
Why would scientists want to use genetic engineering? To help reduce our reliance on fossil fuels
Which of the following conditions is least likely to be improved through genetic engineering? (diabetes, cancer, baldness, broken leg bone) broken leg bone
To produce insulin through genetic engineering, scientists insert the gene for human insulin into ____________. plants
When genes are "knocked out," they are ________________. REMOVED by the genes of a different organism.
A scientist that studies a person's genetic makeup is called a ________. geneticist
Genetic engineering may eventually help us to reduce our reliance on ________. fossil fuels
Created by: JustEmma
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