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Lecture Exam 1

Chapters 1-4

Chaper 1: Biology Is the science field that studies life.
Life All living organism share 6 basic common festive characteristics. Is organized from the simple levels/atoms to the most complex level
Prokaryotes vs Eukaryotes There are 2 different cells are used of the domestic of life. atoms & molecules
Levels of Biological Organization 1 : Atomic to Species to Organism level Biosphere level
Major components of ATOMS Carbon (C), Hydrogen (H), Oxygen (O), Nitrogen (N).
Atoms are consisted 96% by Carbon (C), Hydrogen (H), Oxygen (O), Nitrogen (N). By lbs of each human being .
Biological Organization Level 2 : Atoms to Molecules Molecules H-H Same species of molecules.
Compound Molecules H-O-H Different species of molecules.
Biological Organization Level 3: Building Blocks of Life There are more than 200 different types of CELLS . Ex: Brain Cells , Heart Cells, Bone Cells , Skin Cells , Liver Cells
Biological Organization Level 4: TISSUES There only 4 different types TISSUES. 1. Epithelial Tissues (ET) 2. Connective Tissues (CT) 3. Muscle Tissues (MT) 4. Nervous Tissues (NT)
Biological Organization Level 5 : Major Organs 1. Brian 2.Heart 3. Liver 4. Pancreas 5. Kidneys 6. Skin 7. Lungs 8. Stomach 9. Large Intestine 10 Small Intestine
Biological Organization Level 6 : 13 types of Organ System 1. Integumentary System 2. Muscular System 3. Skeletal System 4. Nervous System 5. Endocrine System 6. Cardiovasular System 7. Respiratory System 8. Digestive System 9. Urinary System 10. Reproductive System 11. Lymphatic System 12. Immune Sy
6 bascis function charterastics of life. 1. Organization 2. Can transform & use energy 3. Ability to produce new cells 4. Ability to maintain homeostasis 5. Ability to detect & respond to stimuli 6. All cells come from a common ancestor
Living Organisms: Use chemical reactions to transform Energy and to Harnes / use Energy.
Metabolism chemical reaction to sum all chemical reaction in the body
Catabolism chemical reaction used to BREAK DOWN fuel molecules
Anabolism chemical reaction to BUILD SOMETHING molecules
Photosynthesis Set of chemical reactions that are used by cells to produce fine molecues (sugars) to harnest energy
Homeostasis Ability to maintain a constant/steady internal environment (body tempreature).
Homeostasis pt2 When external tempreature rises/hot days blood vessels dilate/constrict dissipate
sweat glands use to cool down skin surface when facing rise heat tempreature
1. Sensory receptors they dect the stimuli
2. Control center receptors is sent to the control center
3. Motor response issues a command
3 purposes of producing new cells: 1. Reproduction 2. Growth 3. Tissue Repair
2 signs of why there are small cells? 1. Easier for cells to obtain nutrients to oxygen 2. Easier for cells to dispose celluar waste & carbon dioxide
All living organisms evolution usage on Earth shares a common Ancerstory Is Driven by Natural Selection
All living organisms pt2 usage on Earth have 1 of 2 types of cells: 1. Prokayotic Cells 2. Eukaryotic Cells
3 domain of life for All Living Organisms 1. Archace - ( Prokayotic Cells) 2. Bacteria- ( Prokayotic Cells) 3. Eukarya- ( Eukaryotic Cells)
More "advanced " cells Eukaryotic cells
4 kingdoms classification under the domain to Eukaryotic cells: 1. Protists 2. Plants 3. Fungi 4. Animals/Human Beings: (Tree of Life)
Protists- Are all Uncelluar organisms (yeast)
Plants & Animals/Human Beings- Are all Multicelluar organisms
Fungi- All Multicelluar (moles)
Archeca & Bacteria- All Unicelluar
Chapter 2: Chemistry of Life pt 1 & pt 2 Biochemistry- Chemistry applied to life. Field of science studing interaction bewtween ATOMS (Blocks of Matter)
When ATOMS come together to formcreate 3 types of interactions: 1. Hydrogen Bonds <Chemical Bonds> 2. Iconic Bonds <Chemical Bonds> 3. Covalent Bonds <Chemical Bonds> (strongest interactions)
Concept of the Potential of Hydrogen (PH) scale - is to measure the concentration of Hydrogen ions in a to measure the concentration of free floating Hydrogen cations is measured by a scale system called PH.
Consistance of 3 subatomic particles that makes Atoms: 1. Protons 2. Neutrons 3. Electrons
Protons They carry Postive charge (+). Determines the atoms
Neutrons They carry no charge Netural (=). Dilate the existance or Isotopes
Electrons They carry Negative charge (-). Mediate chemical between the atoms
Protons & Neutrons- Are located in the nucleus of an atom
Electrons- Travel around the nucleus in orbits
Subatomic Particles- smaller than an atoms
Periodic Element number 6 Carbon has : 6 Protons 6 Neutrons 6 Electrons
Atomic Number- (6) C Reflect the number of protns in the nucleus of an atom. The Atomic Number cannot change for any atom
Atomic Weight/Mass- C (12) The sum of protons and neutrons in the nucleus of an atoms
Atom number 6: C Atomic Weight/Mass 12: has 6 protons (+) has 6 neutons (=) has 6 electrons (-)
For the Atomic Number for an atom: the number of protons (+) cannot change the number of neutrons (=) can change the number of electrons (-) cannot change
6 C 12 = 6 neutron 12-6=6
6 C 13= 7 Neutrons 13-6=7
6 C 14 = 8 Neutrons 14-6=8
Octet Rule: 8 desired/optimum number electrons on the second orbit of an atoms
Covalent Bond- Are the strongest type of chemical bonds among the 3 subatomic particles atoms types, Because electrons are shared bewteen the 2 binding parthership.
Hyrogen Bonds for Na and Cl they allow sodium (Na) and Chloride (Cl) to dissociate from 1 another in water. Also allow NaCl to dissolve in water.
1st family of macromolecules is called : Lipids * 3 different types of lipids:* 1st type : Triglycerides (Neutral Fat) 2nd type : Phopholipids (Water-Loving Fat) 3rd type : Steriods ( Drug Hormone/Cholestorol Enhancer )
Reason for the Building of Fatty Acid Molecules is due to the pressure of Double Bond between 2 neighboring carbon
Phospholids has 2 parts part 1 Water Soluble - Hydrophlic part 2 Fat Soluble- Lipophilic
Steroids are build from cholesterol has 2 types of sex hormones <powerful to manipulate phenotypes> 1. Testoerones (Male) 2. Estrogen (Female)
2nd family of macromolecules is called: Cabohyrates <are both Macromolecules & Polymers Monomers- Monosaccharides Dimers- Disaccharides Ploymers- Polysaccharides
3 types of Monsaccharides 1. Glucose 2. Frutose 3. Galactose
3 types of Disaccharides 1. Maltose ( Guclose = Gulcose) 2. Sucrose ( Glucose = Frutose) 3. Galatose (Glucose = Galactose)
3 types of Polysaccharides 1. Glycogen 2. Starch 3. Cellulose + Chitin
3rd family of macromolecules is called: Proteins
4 Protein Structures: 1. Primary Structure 2. Secondary Structure 3. Tertrary Structure 4. Quaterary Structure
Primary Structure Linear sequence of all amino acids protein
Secondary Structure Reginal small stretch
Tertrary Structure Final 3D structure of entry protein
Quaterary Structure 2 or more protein interct with one another
Nucleotides: Nucleic Acids DNA (DeoxyriboNucleic Acids) RNA (RiboNucleic Acids)
Cells are building blocks of life are defined by Cell Theory
3 statement consist of Cells 1. Cell are building blocks of life 2. All cells come from parental/ precursor/ prexisting cells 3. Cells are the smallest Enthesis capable of sutaining life
Sutaining life means Ability to maintain homeostasis. Ability to generate new cells: for reproduction, growth, and tissue repair
Why there 2 signs of small cells? 1. Easier for cells to obtain nutrient to oxygen 2. Easier for cells to dispose celluar waste & carbon dixoide
Surface Area When the size of a cell grows
Volume Area When its volume increase much more signficant then its surface area exchanges
An instrument to see cells and the instrument is called microscope
Light microscope- uses visible light to visulize specimen
Electron microscope- uses beams of electrons
Each cell consist of 2 structural component: 1. Cell Plasma Membrane 2. Cytoplsm
Cell uses 2 types of Transport mechanisms to control the flow of cargo across its plasma membranes 1. Passive Transport 2. Active Transport
Passive Transport Mechanism- Does not require ATP or Celluar Energy. Concentration Gradients drives passive transport. Always goes from High to Low Concentration.
Active Transport Mechanism- Does require ATP or Celluar Energy. Can go against Concentration Gradients. Can go from Low to High Concentration.
Cytoplasm is subdivivded into 2 parts 1. Cytosol- mostly water 2. Organelles- little organs, Non- Membranous, Membronus Organelles
Organelles Membrane with single cell plasma membrane have: -Endoplasmic Reticulum -Golgi Apparatus -Lysomes
Organelles Membrane with double cell plasma membrane have: -Nucleus -Mitocrondrion
Non-Organelle Membrane not having membrane of their own have 4 pts: 1. Ribosomes 2. Cytoskeletons 3. Cilia 4. Flagella
The Human Body builds on 4 different types of Primary Tissues: 1. Epithelial Tissues (ET) 2. Connective Tissues (CT) 3. Muscle Tissues (MT) 4. Nervous Tissues (NT)
Most Epitheial Tissues/ Epithelia have a 2 word name: 1st word indicates number layers of cells 2nd word indicates number layers of cells
Simple 1 layer
Stratified 2 or more layers
Squamous Disc/ Flat shape
Cuboidal Cube shape
Columnar Column shape
Glands- are made of epithelia called Sweat Glands
Endocrine Glands- secrete chemical glands hormones into our bloodstream
Exocrine Glands- multi-simple excrine gland share a common gland duct
Pancreas- Organ that can function both as exocrine & endocrine
Glandular Activities of the Pancreas of Exocrine gland secreating digestive juice 99%
Glandular Activities of the Pancreas of Endocrine gland separating insulin glycogen 91%
Connective Tissues- are most abudant or most widely distributed type of primary tissue in the body
3 subtypes of Connective Tissues (CT) or Fibro Connective Tissues (CT) 1. Loose Connective Tissues 2. Adipose Connective Tissues 3. Dense Connective Tissues
Loose Connective Tissues Largest Skin of the body.
Adipose Connective Tissues Consist of Flat cells.
Dense Connective Tissues Found in (Tendons)- connecting skeletal muslce to the Bone. (Ligaments)- Connecting Bones to Bones
Support Connective Tissues (CT): Avascular Cartilage No Blood Vessels <no cancerous cells entering the body>
Support Connective Tissues (CT): High Vascular Cartilage Lots of Blood Vessels
Fluid (CT): Blood; Blood Plasma; Formed Elements Red Blood Cells/Erthrocytes White Blood Cells/Leukocytes Platelets
3 types of primary muscle tissue (1.) Functional characteristics features the only types of muslce tissue under voluntry Control. (2.) Structural Characteristics features skeletal muscle cells - are long cylinder, multiple nuclei , displays starviation. (3.) Location Skeletal Muscle BB
Consist of 2 catagory Cell types: Neurons = Nerve Cells Neuroglia = Glial Cells
3 Function of Neurons 1. Sensory means receiving information of touch, pressure, tempreature, injury/pain 2. Intergration means data analysis 3. Motor means sending out a decision- Skeletal Muscle Contraction
Glail Cells Provide support, Protection & feed on neuron cells
Blood PH health range: 7.35 to 7.45 Outside and Inside Body temp : 37(C) or 98.6 (F)
The body relies on 2 types of feedback mechanism : 1. Positive Feedback Mechanism 2. Negative Feedback Mechanism
Created by: clardy rodney



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