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BIO UNIT 1 & 2


nutrition the process of providing or obtaining the food necessary for health and growth.
metabolism the chemical processes that occur within a living organism in order to maintain life.
growth the process of increasing in physical size.
response any behavior of a living organism that results from an external or internal stimulus.
excretion (in living organisms and cells) the process of eliminating or expelling waste matter. a product of excretion.
homeostasis the tendency toward a relatively stable equilibrium between interdependent elements, especially as maintained by physiological processes.
reproduction the production of offspring by a sexual or asexual process.
differentiation the action or process of differentiating.
stem cells an undifferentiated cell of a multicellular organism which is capable of giving rise to indefinitely more cells of the same type, and from which certain other kinds of cell arise by differentiation
multicellular organism organisms that consist of more than one cell, in contrast to unicellular organisms.
binary fission A method of asexual reproduction that involves the splitting of a parent cell into two daughter cells.
resolution the shortest distance between two points on a specimen that can still be distinguished by the observer or camera system as separate entities.
compartmentalization The formation of cellular compartments
prokaryotes A microscopic single-celled organism which has neither a distinct nucleus with a membrane nor other specialized organelles
eukaryote Any of the single-celled or multicellular organisms whose cell contains a distinct, membrane-bound nucleus
amphipathic Pertains to a chemical compound containing both polar (water-soluble) and nonpolar (not water-soluble) portions in its structure
golgi apparatus process and package the macromolecules such as proteins and lipids that are synthesized by the cell.
lysosome an organelle in the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells containing degradative enzymes enclosed in a membrane.
mitochondira an organelle found in large numbers in most cells, in which the biochemical processes of respiration and energy production occur.
ribosomes A sphere-shaped structure within the cytoplasm of a cell that is composed of RNA and protein and is the site of protein synthesis.
chloroplast absorb sunlight and use it in conjunction with water and carbon dioxide gas to produce food for the plant.
vacuole a space or vesicle within the cytoplasm of a cell, enclosed by a membrane and typically containing fluid.
vesicles a large structure within a cell, or extracellular, consisting of liquid enclosed by a lipid bilayer.
microtubules a microscopic tubular structure present in numbers in the cytoplasm of cells, sometimes aggregating to form more complex structures.
centrioles a minute cylindrical organelle near the nucleus in animal cells, occurring in pairs and involved in the development of spindle fibers in cell division.
cilia minute hairlike organelles, identical in structure to flagella
flagella a slender threadlike structure, especially a microscopic appendage that enables many protozoa, bacteria, spermatozoa, etc. to swim.
nucleus The large, membrane-bounded organelle that contains the genetic material, in the form of multiple linear DNA molecules organized into structures called chromosomes.
rough endoplasmic reticulum (ER) a network of tubular membranes within the cytoplasm of the cell, occurring either studded with ribosomes , involved in the transport of materials.
endocytosis the taking in of matter by a living cell by invagination of its membrane to form a vacuole
exocytosis a process by which the contents of a cell vacuole are released to the exterior through fusion of the vacuole membrane with the cell membrane.
simple diffusion refers to a process whereby a substance passes through a membrane without the aid of an intermediary such as a integral membrane protein.
facilitated diffusion the process of spontaneous passive transport of molecules or ions across a biological membrane via specific transmembrane integral proteins.
phagocytosis process by which a cell – often a phagocyte or a protist – engulfs a solid particle to form an internal compartment known as a phagosome.
pinocytosis the ingestion of liquid into a cell by the budding of small vesicles from the cell membrane.
osmosis the movement of water or other solvent through a plasma membrane from a region of low solute concentration to a region of high solute concentration. ( passive transport)
hypertonic one where the concentration of solutes is greater outside the cell than inside it.
hypotonic one in which the concentration of solutes is greater inside the cell than outside of it
isotonic two solutions having the same osmotic pressure across a semipermeable membrane.
endosymbiosis symbiosis in which one of the symbiotic organisms lives inside the other.
cytokinesis the cytoplasmic division of a cell at the end of mitosis or meiosis, bringing about the separation into two daughter cells.
cyclins a family of proteins that control the progression of cells through the cell cycle by activating cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) enzymes.
mutagens a physical or chemical agent that changes the genetic material, usually DNA, of an organism and thus increases the frequency of mutations above the natural background level.
oncogenes a sequence of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) that has been altered or mutated from its original form, the proto-oncogene.
Created by: taeofl
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