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Biology Chapter 8

Cellular Energy Vocabulary

TermDefinition
Metabolism All of the chemical reactions that occur within an organism.
Photosynthesis Two-phase anabolic pathway in which the Sun's light energy is converted to chemical energy for use by the cell.
Cellular Respiration Catabolic pathway in which organic molecules are broken don to release energy for use by the cell.
Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP) Energy-carrying biologic molecule, which, when broken don, drives cellular activities.
Thylakoids In chloroplasts, one of the stacked, flattened, pigment-containing membrane in which light-dependent reactions occur.
Granum One of the stacks of pigment-containing thylakoids in a plant's chloroplasts.
Stroma Fluid-filled space outside the grans in which light-dependent reactions take place.
Thermodynamics Study of the flow and transformation of energy in the universe.
First Law of Thermodynamics Energy can be converted from one form to another, but cannot be created nor destroyed.
Second Law of Thermodynamics Energy cannot be converted without the loss of usable energy.
Pigment Light-absobring colored molecule, such as chlorophyll and carotenoid, in the thylakoid membrane of chloroplasts.
NADP+ A coenzyme that exists in many living cells
Calvin Cycle Light-independent rea lions during phase two of photosynthesis in which energy is stored in organic molecule as glucose.
Rubisco Enzyme that converts inorganic carbon dioxide molecules into organic molecules during the final step of the Calvin cycle.
Anaerobic Process Metabolic process that does to require oxygen.
Aerobic Respiration Metabolic process in which pryruvate is broken don and electro-carrier molecule are used to produce ATP though electron transport
Aerobic Process A metabolic process that requires oxygen
Gycolysis Anaerobic process; first stage of cellular respiration in which glucose is broken down into two molecules of pyruvate.
Krebs Cycle Series of rations in which pyruvate is broken down into carbon dioxide inside the mitochondria of cells, also called the tricarboxylic acid cycle and the citric acid cycle.
Fermentation Process in which NAD is regenerated, allowing cells to maintain glycolysis in the absence of oxygen.
Lactic Acid Fermentation Enzymes convert they pyruvate made during glycolysis to lactic acid.
Chemiososis The movement of ions across a semipermeable membrane, down their electrochemical gradient.
Electron Transport Electron carriers are reduced during glycolysis and the citric acid cycle to NADH +H and FADH2. These carrier then donate electrons and protons to the electron carrier proteins of the electron transport chain.
Created by: AKovach
 

 



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