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Biology Ch. 3

organisms that get energy from consuming living things heterotrophs
organisms that make their own food autotrophs
What is an example of a heterotroph? animals and mushrooms
What is an example of a autotroph? plants, algae, some bacteria
process of capturing energy from sunlight to produce glucose(sugar-food) photosynthesis
What organelle does photosynthesis take place? chloroplast
pigment inside the thylakoid that reflects green and absorbs all other colors chlorophyll
jelly fluid inside chloroplast stroma
What are the two reactions for photosynthesis? Light Dependent Reaction and Light Independent Reaction
takes place in thylakoid; takes oxygen out of water; oxygen is the byproduct(requires light) Light Dependent Reaction
takes place in stroma; takes carbon dioxide from atmosphere to produce sugar Light Independent Reaction (Calvins Cycle)
What affects photosynthesis? temperature, amount of light, and access to water
When does photosynthesis occur? when all components are available
What type of cells does photosynthesis take place in? Eukaryotic cells
What is the energy result to photosynthesis? Glucose
process that releases energy from food in the presence of oxygen cellular respiration
Where does cellular respiration occur? in and around mitochondria
What are the 3 main stages of cellular respiration? Glycolysis, Krebs Cycle, and Electron Transport Chain
breakdown of glucose Glycolysis
What occurs in glycolysis? Glucose Lyse-breakdown, produces ATP quickly, doesn't require oxygen, occurs in cytoplasm, produces 2 ATP molecules, and Produces pyruvic acid
uses pyruvic acid from glycolysis Krebs Cycle(Citric Acid Cycle)
What occurs in the Krebs Cycle? produces 2 ATP molecules, produces MGN energy electrons, and occurs in mitochondria
uses electrons from Krebs Cycle Electron Transport Chain
What occurs in the Electron Transport Chain? Produce 32 ATP, requires oxygen, occurs in membrane of mitochondria
process that releases energy from food in the absence of oxygen fermentation
supplies enough ATP to last 90 seconds Lactic Acid Fermentation
short burst of energy, for longer periods of exercise the body needs to go through cellular respiration to make ATP Lactic Acid Fermentation
requires oxygen aerobic
no oxygen needed anaerobic
When does cellular respiration happen? during digestion
What types of cells does cellular respiration take place in? Plant and animal cells
What is the energy result of Cellular Respiration? 36-38 ATP
What are the most known species? microorganisms(bacteria)
Mostly what have been named? insects
individual of a species organism
group of individuals of a species that live in an area population
group of populations in the same area community
a community interacting with the environment ecosystem
living organisms biotic factors
nonliving organisms abiotic factors
a region that organisms are adapted to living biome
all life on Earth and all parts where life exists biosphere
different species in a specific area biodiversity
a sequence that links species through feeding relationships food chain
eat producers herbivore
eat consumers carnivore
eat both producers and consumers omnivore
eat and break down organic material decomposer
feed on waste or dead organisms detritivore
shows how energy is transferred through organisms trophic pyramid
What are the levels of the trophic pyramid?(bottom to top) primary producers-primary consumers-secondary consumer-tertiary consumer-quatenary consumer
How is energy lost at every level? metabolism
its chemical processes that are needed to maintain life metabolism
What is energy lost as? heat
How much energy can be lost from one level to the next? 10%
driven by solar energy and gravity water cycle(hydrological cycle)
rain, sleet, snow precipitation
water is heated and turns to gas evaporation
water is cooled(gas to liquid) condensation
water that seeps into the ground infiltration
precipitation occurs too fast, can't absorb runoff
water leaves plants as gas transpiration
What are that effects of humans activities on water cycle? withdrawing large amounts of fresh water and polluting surface and underground water
terrestrial producers remove carbon dioxide from atmosphere carbon cycle
What do producers use to convert carbon dioxide into glucose and oxygen? photosynthesis
dead plants and organic matter compressed between rocks fossil fuels
takes millions of years to form fossil fuels
What are the effects of human activities on Carbon Cycle? clearing trees and adding large amounts of carbon dioxide by burning fossil fuels
bacteria recycle nitrogen through atmosphere nitrogen cycle
most abundant gas in the atmosphere nitrogen
How much nitrogen is in the atmosphere? 78%
most important part of proteins and nucleic acids nitrogen
What are the two ways nitrogen gets "fixed"? lightning and nitrogen fixing bacteria
convert organic material into ammonia ammonification
converting ammonia back into gas denitrification
What are the human activities on Nitrogen Cycle? burn fuel at high temps, comes back down as acid rain; livestock and waste and fertilizers runoff-depletes ozone layer
essential to living organisms phosphorus cycle
runoff from rocks and minerals phosphorus
Created by: colorguard101
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