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Genetics - Biology

trait a feature that an organism displays that is inherited
genetics the study of the traits of organisms
heredity passing traits from one generation to the next
self-pollinated plants whose pollen can normally pollinate only its own eggs
cross pollinated plants whose pollen is artificially transferred to another plant
purebred (true breeding) organisms that have alleles for one specific trait
Gregor Mendel known as the father of modern genetics
P generation (Parents) two organisms whose genes produce offspring
F1 generation the offspring from parents
F2 generation the offspring produced by crossing two F1 individuals
Principle of dominance and recessiveness one factor in a pair may mask the effect of the other
principle of segregation the two factors for a characteristic separate during the formation of eggs and sperm
principle of independent assortment the factors for different characteristics are distributed to reproductive cells independently
probability the likely outcome a given event will occur from random chance
phenotype the external appearance of an organism, refers to the physical appearance of the individual
genotype the genetic makeup of an organism, refers to the alleles an individual receives at fertilization
homozygous dominant genotypes possess two dominant alleles for a trait (TT)
homozygous recessive genotypes possess two recessive alleles for a trait (tt)
heterozygous genotypes possess one of each allele for a particular trait (Tt). The allele not expressed in a heterozygote is a recessive allele
Punnett Square chart drawn to determine the probable results of a genetic cross
Monohybrid cross a cross between individuals with one pair of contrasting genes (i.e. height)
Dihybrid cross a cross between individuals with two pairs of contrasting genes (i.e. height and color)
testcross cross used to test if an organism is homozygous dominant (ex: AA) or heterozygous dominant (Aa); unknown (A?) is crossed with a known homozygous recessive (aa) to determine it's genotype
complete dominance a pattern of inheritance where heterozygous offspring display dominant phenotype
incomplete dominance a pattern of inheritance where heterozygous offspring show trait intermediate between two parental phenotypes
lethal alleles genetic defect that causes 100% mortality in the offspring
co-dominance pattern of inheritance in which both alleles of a gene are expressed in a heterozygote
sex-lined traits have genes located on a sex chromosome (X or Y in humans)
sex-lined inheritance because the gene in question is on a sex chromosome, both sexes do not show the same probability for inheritance of a trait. x-linked traits would show two alleles for females (XaXa) wheras males only have one allele (XaY) that is expressed as phenotype
multiple-allele traits controlled by three or more alleles of the same gene
polygenic traits controlled by two or more genes
pleiotropy one gene results in multiple (seemingly unrelated) phenotypes
sex-influenced traits located on autosomes, but express themselves differently in the sexes because of sex hormones
pedigree graphic method of illustrating inheritance of genetic traits within several generations of families
Created by: LizardMogg
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