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Bio MID TERM Vocab

Biology Mid Term Vocabulary Definition From Textbook

1. System organized group of related parts that interact to form a whole
2. Boundaries define the space of the system to separate that system from the rest of the universe
3. Open system the inputs and outputs flow into and out of the system
4. Closed system the flow of one or more inputs and outputs is limited in some way
5. Isolated system all of the inputs and outputs are contained within the system
6. Feedback information from one step of the cycle that acts to change the behavior of the previous step of the cycle
7. Model a pattern, plan, representation, or description designed to show the structure or workings of an object, system, or concept
8. Emergent property a property that a system has but that its component parts do not have
9. Ecosystem includes all the nonliving and living things, in a given area
10. Organism all living or nonliving things
11. Biotic factor Living components in an ecosystem
12. Abiotic factor Non-living components in an ecosystem
1. Organ system Two or more organs that work together to preform body functions
2. Organ a group of tissues that carry out a specialized function of the body
3. Tissue a group of similar cells that work together to carry out a a specialized function usually as part of an organ
4. Cell the most basic unit of life
5. Cell differentiation the process by which cells become specialized in structure or function
6. Cell membrane controls the movement of materials into and out of the cell
7. Nucleus the storehouse for most of the genetic information
8. Mitochondrion supply the energy for the cell
9. Chloroplast organelles that carry out photosynthesis
10. Prokaryotic cells cells that don't have a nucleus or membrane-bond organelles
11. Eukaryotic cells cells that have a nucleus or membrane-bond organelles
12. Lysosome membrane-bond organelles that contain special proteins called enzymes
13. Golgi apparatus consists of stacks of membrane-enclosed spaces that process, sort, and deliver proteins
14. Endoplasmic reticulum an interconnected network of thin, folded membranes
15. Rough endoplasmic reticulum surfaces of the ER covered with Ribosomes
16. Ribosomes
17. Vacuole a fluid filled sac used for the storage of materials needed by the cell
1. Homeostasis the regulation and maintenance of the internal environment within the narrow ranges that are necessary to support life at the cellular level
2. Stimulus anything from the internal or external environment that causes an imbalance in the internal conditions of a cell, organ, organ system, or organism
3. Hormone chemicals secreted into the bloodstream by ductless endocrine glands
4. Feedback loop the interaction between the receptor, control center, and effector
5. Positive feedback loop makes adjustments in the same direction as the stimulus
6. Negative feedback loop a stimulus causes an imbalance in one direction
1. Technology the application of scientific knowledge for practical purposes
2. Bioengineering applies the concepts of engineering to living things
3. Biotechnology developed to allow people to live longer, healthier lives
4. Engineering design process a method used to develop or improve technology
1. Atom every physical thing you can think of, living or not, is made of incredibly small particles called atoms
2. Element a substance made up of one type of atom and cannot be broken into simpler substances by ordinary chemical means
3. Ion atoms that have gained or lost electrons
4. Molecule is two or more atoms held together by covalent bonds
5. Compound are substances composed of atoms of two or more different elements bonded together in specific ratios
6. Chemical reaction changes substances into different substances by breaking chemical bonds and forming new chemical bonds, rearranging atoms in the process
7. Catalyst a substance that increases the rate of the reaction
8. Enzyme a catalyst used in living organisms
1. Polymer a large molecule made up of subunits called monomers
2. Hydrocarbon compounds that only contain hydrogen and carbon
3. Carbohydrate is composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen
4. Phospholipid is a lipid that consists of glycerol, two fatty acids, and a phosphate head
5. Protein are often described as the building blocks of life
6. Amino acid the building blocks for proteins
7. ATP cellular respiration transfers energy from organic molecules such as glucose to a molecule called
8. Cell membrane has a specialized structure that allows the cell to control the passage of materials into and out of the cell
9. Osmosis the diffusion in water
10. Endocytosis the process of taking liquids or fairly large molecules into a cell by engulfing them in a membrane
11. Exocytosis the release of substances out of a cell by the fusion of a vesicle with the membrane
1. Producer capture light energy from the sun and store it in high - energy sugar molecules
2. Photosynthesis a process on which plants, algae, and some bacteria capture and transform light energy from the sun and store into high-energy sugar molecules
3. Chloroplast where light absorption and photosynthesis takes place
4. Thylakoid stacks of disc shaped sacs located in the inner chloroplast which contains pigment molecules of chlorophyll
5. Chlorophyll a pigment molecule in chloroplasts
6. ATP transfers light energy to energy-carrying molecules
7. NADPH a molecule that serves as energy carrier during photosynthesis
8. Light independent reaction "dark reactions" of photosynthesis are chemical reactions that convert carbon dioxide and other compounds into glucose
9. Light dependent reaction The series of biochemical reactions in photosynthesis that require light energy that is captured by light-absorbing pigments (such as chlorophyll) to be converted into chemical energy in the form of ATP and NADPH.
Created by: Mortis_15_E
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