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Ch7 Cells

Cellular Structure and Function

TermDefinition
Cell The basic unit of structure and organization of all living organisms.
Cell Theory 1. Organisms are made up of one or more cell. 2. Cells are the basic unit of life. 3. All cells come from other cells.
Plasma Membrane A special boundary that helps control what enters and leaves the cell.
Organelle Specialized structures that carry out specific cell functions
Eukaryotic Cell A cell that contains a nucleus and other organelles that our bound by a membrane.
Prokaryotic Cell A cell without a nucleus or other membrane-bound organelles (most single cell organisms)
Nucleus Central organelle that contains cells genetic material in the form of DNA
Selective Permeability Membrane allows some substances to pass through while keeping others out.
Phospholipid Bilayer Two layers of phospholipids are arranged tail to tail.
Transport Protein Protein that moves substances or wastes through the plasma membrane.
Fluid Mosaic Model A plasma membrane with components constantly in motion sliding past one another within the lipid bilayer.
Cytoplasm Semifluid material inside the cell's plasma membrane
Ribosome Organelle that is the site of protein synthesis
Nucleolus The site of ribosome production within the nucleus of eukaryotic cells.
Endoplasmic Reticulum A highly folded membrane that is the site of protein and lipid synthesis (in eukaryotic cells)
Golgi Apparatus Flattened stack of tubular membranes that modify proteins and packages them for distribution outside the cell.
Lysosome A vesicle that contains digestive enzymes for the breakdown of excess or worn out cellular substances.
Vacuole A membrane-bound vessel for the temporary storage of materials.
Centrioles Organelles that occur in pairs and are important for cell division
Mitochondria A membrane-bound organelle that makes energy available to the rest of the cell.
Cell Wall A flexible barrier that provides support and protects the plant.
Chloroplasts A double-membrane organelle with thylakoids containing chlorophyl, where photosynthesis takes place.
Cilia/Flagella Projections from cell's surface that aid in locomotion and feeding, also used to sweep substances along surfaces
Diffusion Movement of particles of a substance from where they are many to where there are few.
Dynamic Equilibrium Continuous movement but no overall change.
Facilitated Diffusion Use transport proteins to move other ions and small molecules across the plasma membrane
Osmosis Diffusion of water across a selectively permeable membrane.
Isotonic Solution Cells in a solution that have the same concentration of water and solutes (=)
Hypertonic Solution Cells have a lower concentration of solute (more water outside the cell than inside)
Active Transport Energy requiring process by which substances move across the plasma membrane against a concentration gradient
Endocytosis Energy requiring process by which large substances from the outside environment can enter a cell
Exocytosis Energy requiring process by which a cell expels wastes and secretes substances at the plasmic membrane.
Created by: AKovach