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What are nucleic acids? Nucleic acids are large polymers made up of smaller repeating units, or monomers.
What are nucleic acid monomers called? Nucleotides
What are the four DNA nucleotides? Adenine (A), guanine (G), thymine (T), and cytosine (C).
What are the complimentary DNA nucleotide bases? Guanine and Cytosine. Adenine and Thymine.
What are the four RNA nucleotides? Adenine (A), guanine (G), cytosine (C), uracil (U).
What are the complimentary RNA nucleotide bases? Guanine and Cytosine. Adenine and Uracil.
How do scientists label the carbons in the sugar part of the backbone for both RNA and DNA? How do they label the phosphate group? Scientists label the carbons in the sugar from 1' to 5' based on their position in the molecule. The phosphate group is attached to the sugar at the 5' carbon
True or False: One sugar-phosphate chain runs in the 5' to 3' direction and the other runs in the 3' to 5' direction. True.
What are the two complimentary stands of DNA held together by? Hydrogen bonds
What shape does DNA take? The two strands wind together to form a spiral shape called a double helix.
What shape does RNA take? RNA is single stranded, some RNA molecules form folded structures, and, like proteins, these folded RNA molecules perform various functions like catalyzing reactions and transporting molecules.
What charge is the DNA phosphate in the backbone? Negative.
True or False: DNA is not a polar molecule, so it cannot be easily dissolved in water, but dissolves in non-polar solvents such as alcohol. False.
Where is DNA found in eukaryotic organisms? In eukaryotic organisms, DNA is contained inside the cell nucleus. DNA is tightly coiled around proteins to form structures called chromosomes.
What is gene expression? The result of coding information determined by DNA
Where is DNA found in prokaryotes? The DNA of prokaryotes is usually arranged in a single circular chromosome that is located in an area called the nucleoid and may be loosely tethered to the cell membrane.
True or false: Chromosome number does not directly relate to the complexity of organisms. True. Ex: Humans have 23 pairs of chromosomes, or 46 total; a dog has a total of 78, and the adder's-tongue fern a total of 1,260!
Where is genetic information located? Genetic information is encoded in the order of nucleotide bases in DNA.
What are "coding" segments called? What do they do? Genes. Each gene codes for a different protein. An organism’s DNA contains the genes to code for all of the proteins that the organism needs to produce structures and carry out life processes.
True or False: Genes are made up of sequences with three-base segments called codons. True
True or False: Different codons code for unique amino acids. Some amino acids may not be coded for by more than one codon. False. Some amino acids may be coded for by more than one codon.
How many different amino acids are there? 20
True or False: The order of amino acids in a protein determines the protein’s structure and function. To make a protein the gene containing the DNA, coding for that protein must first be converted into an RNA molecule. True
Explain transcription. The process of synthesizing RNA from a DNA template. The cell copies the information in a gene by making complementary messenger RNA strands
Explain translation. The process of building a protein based on a RNA template. Messenger RNA (mRNA) strands are used as the code to assemble amino acids in the correct order to form a protein.
During transcription, the enzyme RNA polymerase catalyzes the copying of base codes in a gene from DNA to a complementary strand of mRNA. Where does this strand go? It travels through the cytoplasm to structures called ribosomes.
Ribosomes are made of another kind of RNA called ribosomal RNA (rRNA). What occurs here? Protein synthesis.
What does tRNA (transfer RNA) do? tRNA, carries amino acids to the ribosomes and attaches them in the order coded on the mRNA molecule.
How are amino acids linked together? With peptide bonds. These then form a protein.
When does DNA replication begin? DNA replication begins when the enzyme helicase unwinds a segment of DNA and separates the two strands of the double helix, forming a structure called a replication fork.
True or False: DNA polymerase can add nucleotides only to a free 3' end of a growing segment, never to a 5' end, so DNA synthesis can occur in the 5' to 3' direction only. True.
Which strand of the replication fork can be continuously be assembled? How does the other strand complete synthesis? The leading strand. Synthesis of the other strand—the lagging strand—occurs in segments.
What are the names of each DNA strand during replication? Leading and Lagging.
Suppose a scientist extracts DNA from one cell and inserts it into another cell. What is the scientist most likely trying to accomplish? A genetic copy.
What molecules are transferred by tRNA? Amino Acids
What determines the genetic code of a region of DNA? The order of nitrogenous bases
Which of the following best describes the structure of a typical molecule of DNA? Double-stranded helix
What does a chromosome consist of? Tightly wound DNA and proteins
What is the most inclusive component of an organism? Chromosomes.
What does adenine bind to in a molecule of DNA? A sugar phosphate group and thymine.
What molecule begins DNA replication? Helicase
Which of the following is NOT a type of RNA? Ribosomal, messenger, translational, transfer Translational.
Messenger RNA delivers a "message" from ________ to ________. DNA; ribosomal RNA
Many amino acids come together to form a ________. Protein
RNA contains ________. 4 possible nitrogenous bases.
How are the four DNA bases typically abbreviated? A, T, C, G
Created by: JustEmma
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