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macromolecules

BIOL 288

QuestionAnswer
what are the 4 biological molecules proteins, nucleic acids, lipids and carbs
what are lipids nonpolar, uncharged hydrocarbons, classified by solubility. soluble in org solvents, insoluble in water
what are the functions of lipids energy storage, compartmentalization, cell signalling, immune and inflammatory responses
what is lipid energy storage via trigylcerides and fatty acids
what are triglycerides fat storage, glycerol and 3 fatty acids. 3 OH ester bonds with FA
what are fatty acids amphipathic, long unbranched hydrocarbon tails(hydrophobic), carboxyl group head, hydrophilic, charged at neutral pH
what is compartmentalization of lipids phospholipids and amphipatheic.. used in membranes to separate cell and organelles from external aqueous environment
what are phospholipids amphipathic, hydrophilic polar head and hydrophobic fatty acid tail
what does phospholipid consist of glycerol backbone, 2 FA, 1 phosphate linked to 3rd OH of glycerol, small hydrophilic head group bound to phosphate
Do lipids attract eachother no, water excludes them attracting itself, b/c cant form H bonds
what is cell signaling-lipds steroids and membrane lipids signalling
what are steroids key signalling molecules(animals cholesterol, plants sterols) differ in the aliphatic side chains
what are other signalling lipids membrane lipids cleaved to form secondary messengers. eg.G proteins
what are the immune nad inflammatory response of lipids leukotrienes, prostaglandins, prostacyclins, thromboxanes are lipid signalling associated with inflammatory responses, derived from cell memb
what are carbs simple sugars(mono-) and polymers(poly-)
what are monoscharrides (CH2O)n . has carbon atom backbone linked to single OH (except COO group)
what group defines the two types of sugars carbonyl
what are the two types of sugars aldose and ketose
what is aldose carbonyl group at one end of sugar forms aldehyde group 6C
what is ketose carbonyl group found at internal chain position 5C
what are isomers the chemical formula doesnt define type of sugar.
what are glucose and fructose isomers. same chemical formula, but atoms arranged differently. one is aldose and other ketose.
what are disacchrides monosac linked by glycosidic bond via condensation/dehydration rxn.
what are examples of disachhrides sucrose(glu and fru-alpha 1,2) lactose (gala and glu-beta 1,4) maltose(2 glu -alpha 1,4)
what are polyscharrides long chains of mono linked by glycosidic bonds.
what is there variability in polyscarrides type of mono(one or many types), branching, type glycosidic bonds
what is Extracellular Glycosaminoglycans many different mono producing very different molecules.
what are only glucose mono, but have very different molecules glycogen, starch, cellulose
what is cellulose animals digest via symbiosis with bacteria. tight packed with beta 1,4
what are modified mono the OH group changed with functional groups. eg. chitin, consists of monomers of N-actetylglucosamine
hwo do sugars modify molecules carbs can be covlantly linked to proteins (glycoproteins) and membrane lipids(glycolipids) and act like "labels" for other protiens to "read"
what are the functions of carbs energy(glucose, glycogen, starch),, structure (cellulose, GAG), cell signalling, cell recognition, protein and enzyme function, cell surface protection(glycocalyx)
what do nucleotides consist of 5C sugar, base, phosphate
how are bases linked to sugars covalently via C1 prime (n-glycosidic bond)
how are sugars linked to phosphate C5 prime of sugar (phosphoester bond)
what are nucleoside base and sugar
what are nucleotide base, sugar and phosphate
what are the functions of nucleotides info storage in forms RNA/DNA, energy(ATP,NADH,GTP), coenzymes, signaling, enzymes
what are nucleotide triphosphates serve as building blocks of nucleic acids with are long polymers of deoxyribonucleotides or ribonucleotides
how are nucleic acids linked together covalently by phosphodiester bonds btwn C3 hydroxyl group of one nucleotide and the phosphate group of another nucleotide
how do nucleic acids have directionality 5' and 3' end of how they are linked
the DNA double helix bases held in center H bonds, weak. backbone is sugar and phosphate
what is the structure of amino acids alpha carbon, carboxyl group, amino group, R group. ionized at physiological pH
what is the function of amino aicds building blocks of proteins, (linked via peptide bonds), energy (TCA cycle)
how are polymers constructed covalently linking small organic molecules into long chains
cells contain what 3 types of macromolecules polysacchrides, proteins and nucleic acids
what are the common mechanisms of macromolecules synthesized stepwise via monomers grows by one end via dehydration rxn, catalyzed by specific carrier molecules/enzymes, monomers added in sequence, have inherent directionality
what does stepwise addition create a large diversity of complex molecules
what does individual covalent bonds create rotation of atoms, flexibility and ability of many configurations
how is the unltimate shape of macromolecule constrained weaker noncovalent bonds that are additive and influence interaction of large marcomolecule complexes
Created by: abc273