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Evaluation Methods

dyspnea shortness of breath
orthopnea difficulty breathing when lying flat
paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnea suddenly waking at night, gasping for breath
cardiac dyspnea difficulty breathing due to increased LA or PA pressure
What are some causes of dyspnea? PHTN, MS, AS, MI, & ischemia
pulmonary edema collection of fluid inside the lungs
pleural effusion collection of fluid within the pleural spaces (outside the lungs)
chest pain an imprecise term describing any pain, pressure, squeezing, or discomfort in the chest, neck, or upper abdomen
What are the 2 types of chest pain? Atypical & Typical
atypical chest pain NOT due to CAD
typical chest pain/angina pectoris due to myocardial ischemia as a result of CAD
myocardial ischemia myocardial demand for oxygen exceeds available supply of oxygen
transient ischemia lasts only a few minutes & is reversible
prolonged ischemia lasting more than 30 minutes & causes cell necrosis
heart failure occurs when the heart is unable to fill with blood or pump enough blood to meet the body's needs
What conditions lead to heart failure? CAD, HBP, valve disease, cardiac viral infections, congenital heart disease
palpitations periods of rapid and/or irregular heartbeat
syncope sudden & temporary loss of consciousness or fainting
subclavian steal syndrome blood pressure in one arm is markedly lower than in the other
vasovagal syncope fainting due to pain, fright, the sight of blood
peripheral edema swelling in the legs commonly seen with heart failure
Jugular vein distension is typically a sign of what? right-sided heart issues & elevated pressures, cardiac tamponade, constrictive pericarditis
cyanosis bluish discoloration in the skin caused by low oxygen saturation
squatting occurs in children with congenital heart disease; squatting increases venous return to the right side of the heart
pectus excavatum sunken chest/sternum
What is pectus excavatum associated with? MVP or ASD
pectus carinatum protrusion of the chest/sternum
What is pectus carinatum associated with? MVP & Marfan's syndrome
What pulses are commonly examined to evaluate cardiac function? Carotid artery & jugular vein pulses
bruit abnormal sounds
Carotid artery pulse usually represents events originating where? LV
What does the anacrotic limb represent on a carotid artery pulse contour? initial systolic ejection
What does the dicrotic notch represent on a carotid artery pulse contour? aortic valve closing
What does the dicrotic peak represent on a carotid artery pulse contour? aortic elastic recoil
hypokinetic pulse small & weak
parvus et tardus slow rising & gradual downslope; common in patients with AS
hyperkinetic pulse large & bounding
pulsus bigeminus a result of PVC's
pulsus bisferiens 2 narrowly separated peaks on anacrotic notch
pulsus alternans weakening of every other beat
paradoxical pulse marked decrease in amplitude during inspiration; commonly seen with tamponade
Jugular venous pulse contour represents events originating where? RA
What does the A wave represent? right atrial contraction
What does the C wave represent? increased pressure causing TV to bulge into RA
What does the V wave represent? passive pressure & volume increase of RA causing TV to open
What does the X descent represent? RA relaxation
What does the Y descent represent? drop in RA pressure & volume
How would PHTN, PS, or TS look on the jugular vein pulse contour? increased A wave
How would a fib look on the jugular vein pulse contour? no A wave
How would TR look on the jugular vein pulse contour? no X descent; a CV wave
Created by: ginaliane