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what is the basic unit of all living things? cells
what are the characteristics of life? metabolism, homeostasis, utulize energy, reproduction, DNA. Cell, growth and developement, respond to environment
What is homeostasis? A cell/organism that maintains normal conditions (Ex; Blood temperature)
What is a dependent variable? Is it on the Y or X axis of a graph? a variable (often denoted by y ) whose value depends on that of another.
What is a independent variable? Is it on the Y or X axis of a graph? a variable (often denoted by x ) whose variation does not depend on that of another.
what are the levels of biological organization from smallest to largest? subatomic particles Atom Molecule Organelle Cell tissue organs organ systems organism population communities Ecosystem biosphere
What is a metabolism? the chemical processes that occur within a living organism in order to maintain life.(the use of energy)
In relation to the scientific experimentation, what is a control and what is it used for? an experiment or observation designed to minimize the effects of variables other than the independent variable.
If the eye piece is 10x and the objective lens is 40x, what is the magnification of the object? 400x
What are the three main differences between plant and animal cells? -Animal cells are smaller -Animal cells have no chloroplast -plant cells have a cell wall
What are the main differences between eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells? -eukaryotic cells have a nucleus -eukaryotic cells have organelles -Both have different DNA
What did Leeuwenhoek do for biology? He discovered "protozoa" - the single-celled organisms and he called them "animalcules". Created better lenses and observed cells in greater detail.
What did Hooke do for biology? He was the first to identify cells, and he named them.
What did Schwann do for biology? He concluded that all living things are made of cells.
What are the three main components of Cell Theory? -All organisms are made of cells. -All existing cells are produced by other living cells. -The cell is the most basic unit of life.
What are the 6 main elements found in living things? CHNOPS? Carbon, Hydrogen, Nitrogen, Oxygen, Phosphorus, and sulfur.
What element do all organic compound contain? Hint: It starts with C. Carbon
What is the formula for glucose? Hint: remember that sugars have a 1:2:1 ratio for C:H:O C₆H₁₂O₆
What is glucose and what does it look like? a simple sugar which is an important energy source in living organisms and is a component of many carbohydrates. (graphed to look like a hexagon)
What is ATP and how is it used? a high-energy molecule found in every cell. It's job is to store and supply the cell with needed energy.
What is starch and where in the body is it used? A starch is a complex polysaccharide made up of a large number of glucose as monomeric units joined together by glycosidic bonds.
What is protein and what does it help our body with? They are polymers of amino acids.
What is fatty acid? What does it look like? Chains of carbon atoms bonded to hydrogen atoms. Fatty acids can be either saturated or unsaturated.
What type of reaction splits polymers? Hydrolosis
What type of reaction creates polymers? Dehydration
What is diffusion? Diffusion is the movement of molecules in a fluid or gas from a region of higher concentration to a region of lower concentration
What is osmosis? Osmosis is the diffusion of water molecules across a semipermeable membrane from higher concentration to a lower one.
what is endocytosis, pinocytosis, and phagocytosis? Endocytosis is the process of taking liquids or fairly large molecules into a cell by engulfing them in a membrane. Phagocytosis is where the cell membrane engulfs large particles. Pinocytosis is taking liquid into a cell by vesicles.
What is exocytosis? exocytosis is the release of substances out of a cell by vesicles
What is the difference between passive and active transport? Active transport drives molecules across a membrane from lower concentration to a higher one, and passive is from a higher one to a lower one.
Where are the hydrophobic region, hydrophylic region, phospholipid, channel proteins, and glycoproteins? The hydrophobic region is repelled from water conditions and hydrophilic is attracted. Phospholipids are the little tentacles in between the cell membrane, channel proteins are embedded in the cell membrane, glycoproteins are also embedded in the membrane
What is an enzyme? An enzyme is a catalyst for chemical reactions in living things.
Are enzymes used up in chemical reactions? Yes or no. Hint: Enzymes may be reused. No.
What does it mean for an enzyme to become denatured? When an enzyme is exposed to high heat, the shape is altered, and it can no longer function.
WHat is an enzyme and it's substrate? Can you recognize the enzyme-substrate complex? An enzyme's substrate is essentially its restriction; the enzyme can only break down its substrate.
What is the active site? The specific place where a substrate can react with an enzyme.
What is a substrate? The specific reactants that an enzyme acts on.
what are the 3 subatomic particles of an atom and where are they located? They are the proton, electron, and neutron. The protons and neutrons are near the nucleus in the center, and the electrons orbit the nucleus from afar.
What is the charge of each of the following subatomic particles? a. Proton b. Neutron c. Electron Proton: + Electron: - Neutron: neutral, no charge.
What is atomic mass and the atomic number of an element mean? the mass of an atom of a chemical element expressed in atomic mass units. Atomic numbers is the number of protons found in the nucleus of an atom.
Explain the difference between the 3 types of bonding. covalent bonds Ionic bonds Hydrogen bonds
Give an example of a compound in which covalent bonding occurs. Hint: You drink it every day. H2O
Give an example of a compound in which ionic bonding occurs. Hint: you put these on French Sodium chloride
Why is water a polar molecule? What region of the water molecule has a positive charge and which one has a negative charge? Because of oxygen. The side with no electrons, it positive. The side with electrons are negative.
List four properties of water. Polar molecule, Cohesion, Adhesion, High specific heat.
What is an acid? What is it's pH? a substance with particular chemical properties including turning litmus red, neutralizing alkalis, and dissolving some metals. the pH is 7 or less.
What is a base? What is it's pH? a base is a chemical species that donates electrons, accepts protons, or releases hydroxide (OH-) ions in aqueous solution.
Where does photosynthesis take place? Name the organelle. Takes place in the Chloroplast.
What do all cells have in common? List three things. -DNA -membrane -cytoplasm
What is the equation for photosynthesis? 6CO2 + 6H20 → C6H12O6 + 6O2
What is the equation for cellular respiration? C6H12O6 + 6O2 --> 6CO2 + 6H2O + 36
What are the reactants and products with photosynthesis and cellular respiration? Reactant: carbon dioxide, oxygen Products: carbon dioxide, water
What is produced by the light reactions? List three things. What is a byproduct and what is used by the dark reaction? NADPH ATP Oxygen
How is ATP produced by chloroplasts? photosynthesis
How is ATP produced by mitocondria? Cellular respiration
What is the role of mitochondria and chloroplasts? Mitochondria: to produce the energy currency of the cell, ATP through respiration, and to regulate cellular metabolism. Chloroplasts: to make food by the process of photosynthesis
What happens to your muscles when you exercise anaerobically? They produce ___________________. This makes your muscle sore and is a type of fermentation. Lactic Acid.
What happen during the Dark Reaction/ Calvin Cycle of photosynthesis? What gets produced? Hint: Carbon Dioxide is a need for this step. Carbon dioxide, NADPH, and ATP goes into the cycle which then produces glucose, NADP+, and ADP
What is the carbon source for the Dark Reactions? The carbon dioxide in the air.
What is glycolysis and where does it happen in the cell? What does it start with and what is it changed into during glycolysis? Hint: it is also called blood sugar. glycolysis - anaerobic process of splitting glucose and forming 2 molecules of pyruvic acid to transfer to Krebs cycle, also produces 2 ATP and 2 NADPH. Happens in the mitochondria.
What happens during Krebs and the Electron Transport Chain and where does it occur in the cell? Hint: What happens to pyruvate when oxygen is present. Krebs Cycle- produces CO2, NADH, FADH, ATP from 2 pyruvate, NAD+, FAD+, ADP ETC- produces NAD+, FAD+, H20, ATP from Krebs (CO2, NADH, FADH, ATP) All happens in the mitochondria
What is the correct order of cellular respiration when oxygen is present? Hint: G,K,ETC Glycolysis, Krebs cycle, electron transport chain
How many ATP is produced in oxygen is present? Up to how many ATP? 36 to 38 ATP
What is the role of NADH and FADH₂? Hint: The carry something and drop it off at the electron transport chain. helping to transport electrons into the mitochondria.
What is role of NADPH? It is similar to the role of NADH and FADH₂ but it is used in photosynthesis. It reduces CO2 producing glucose for the plants use.
What are chromatids and what does a replicated chromosome look like? ½ of a chromosome and a replicated chromosome looks similar to the chromosome that it replicates.
what are the stages of mitosis? Be able to recognize them! Prophase, Metaphase, Anaphase, Telophase/Cytokinesis
What are the stages of meiosis? Be able to recognize them! Prophase 1, Metaphase 1, Anaphase 1, Telophase/Cytokinesis 1, Prophase 2, Metaphase 2, Anaphase 2, Telophase/Cytokinesis 2
Why is meiosis 1 so important to genetic diversity? It’s important to genetic diversity because it’s where all the chromosomes can line up in different ways which leads to different genotypes being formed. Occurs in Metaphase 1
What happens during prophase 1 that adds to genetic diversity? Homologous chromosome segments cross over
What happens during metaphase 1 that adds to genetic diversity? Law of independent assortment
What happens during anaphase 1 that adds to genetic diversity? Law of segregation
What is the law of independant assortment and when does it take place during meiosis? M1- chromosomes lineup in different ways
What is the law of segregation and when does it take place during meiosis? A1- when your 2 copies of chromosomes from each parent divides.
What are the stages of the cell cycle? Gap 1, Synthesis, Gap 2, Mitosis
What is G₀? What cells might be stuck in this phase? It’s an extended G1 phase where the cell isn’t dividing or preparing to divide. Cells that didn’t make the checkpoint could be stuck there or also developing cells.
Cells need a large ____________ and a small _____________ to be able to function as a cell. surface area, volume
What is cancer? a disease caused by an uncontrolled division of abnormal cells in a part of the body.
What is the difference between internal and external factors that help regulate the cell cycle? Internal- isn’t affected by things occuring outside the cell External- physical and chemical signs
List some examples of external factors that help regulate the cell cycle. Growth factors that stimulate cell division
List some examples of internal factors that help regulate the cell cycle. Kinases and cyclins. The three checkpoints for each part of the cell cycle.
What is apoptosis? the death of cells which occurs as a normal and controlled part of an organism's growth or development.
What is the role of p53 gene? Hint: It is called the guardian angel of the cell. to activate p21
what is the role of p21 gene? Kills cells if activated.
What is a carcinogen? a substance capable of causing cancer in living tissue.
what does a mutated BRCA1 and BRCA2 gene do? Causes breast and ovarian cancer
What virus can cause cervical cancer? HPV (causes changes to your cervix)
What can smoking cause? Hint: It is defined as uncontrolled cell growth in the ____________ tissue. Lung cancer.
What are checkpoints of the cell cycle? Hint: there are three of them. G1, G2, Mitosis
What is the role of Cyclin Dependant Kinases (CDKs) and Cyclin? Hint: Without these cell cycle does not continue. It regulates the cell cycle, they’re the maturation promote factor (MPF)
What is binary fission and what organism use this method to reproduce? Hint:it makes clones. the division of a single entity into two or more parts and the regeneration of those parts into separate entities resembling the original.
What is a tissue? What is it's role within an organism? a cellular organizational level between cells and a complete organ.
What is an organ? What is it's role within an organism? collection of tissue, and each organ has its own specific vital function
What is an organ system? What is it's role within an organism? Organ system = collection of organs, and it’s role is to work together to create a well functioning organism
What is a stem cell? Divide and renew themselves, remain undifferentiated, develop into a variety of specialized cell types.
What is a totipotent stem cell? It can grow into any other cell type (fertilized egg)
What is a pluripotent stem cell? It can grow into any cell type (embryonic stem cell, neurons, skin, muscle)
What is a multipotent stem cell? Grow into cells of closely related family (adult stem cell, red blood cells, platelets, white blood cells)
What is the potential of stem cells? They can grow into a variety of specialized cell types
How many chromosome so humans have? In each cell, humans have 46 chromosomes.
How many chromosomes are in your haploid stage? 23 chromosomes
How many chromosomes are in your diploid stage? 46 chromosomes
What is the purpose of mitosis and meiosis? For cell reproduction and growth. Genetic diversity and the survival of a certain species.
What are homologous chromosomes? a set of one maternal and one paternal chromosome that pair up with each other inside a cell during meiosis.
What is crossing over and when does it happen? the exchange of genes between homologous chromosomes, resulting in a mixture of parental characteristics in offspring. It occurs between prophase 1 and metaphase 1 of meiosis.
What does n, 2n, and 3n mean? n: haploid 2n: Diploid 3n: Triploid
How many viable eggs and sperm are produced from one germ cell? 1 viable egg and viable sperms are produced
Who's the father of genetics? He used pea plants, was and Australian monk and loved botany and math. Gregor Mendel
What are traits? Genetically determined characteristic
what are genetic? The study of heredity
What is a purebred? Has always been homozygous dominant or homozygous recessive
What is a hybrid? Mixed dominant and recessive alleles
What did Mendel discover? Discovered the pattern of inheritance in genes
What is a homozygous dominant genotype? Be able to recognize it! Only dominant alleles (ex. DD)
What is a heterozygous genotype? Be able to recognize it! A dominant and recessive allele (ex. Dd)
What is a homozygous recessive genotype? Be able to recognize it! Only recessive alleles (ex. dd)
What is a allele? Alleles are genes
What is a gene? Determines the phenotype and genotype of offspring
What is a dominant and recessive allele? Dominant is shown in the phenotype over a recessive allele
What are the genotypes of a carrier for recessive traits? Either homozygous recessive or heterozygous genotype
What is incomplete/intermediate dominance? Hint: think of carnations! Heterozygous phenotype is between homozygous dominant and homozygous recessive. The result is a third, distinct phenotype.
What is codominance? Hint: Think of blood groups. 2 alleles of a gene are completely and separately expressed
What are polygenes? What are some examples? Hint: Dr Jeffery story. Polygenic traits are traits that are produced by 2 or more genes. For example, eye color.
What blood groups can donate to what blood groups? A to ?, O to ? A to A or AB. O to A, AB, or B
What is epistasis? Hint: Think of Labrador retrievers. the interaction of genes that are not alleles, in particular the suppression of the effect of one such gene by another.
What are sex-linked traits? Why are men more prone to get sex linked disorders? A particularly important category of genetic linkage has to do with the X and Y sex chromosomes.
How can the environment influence genes? Hint: Do you burn or tan? Environment affects the gene expression by altering the ways molecules bind to our DNA
What is a nucleus's function? Brain of the cell; directs everything
What is a mitochondria's function? Where energy is produced by cellular respiration
What is Endoplasmic Reticulum's function? Produces proteins and lipids
What is Plasma Membrane's function? Protect cell from surroundings outside the cell
What is a chloroplast's function? Where photosynthesis occurs
What is a Golgi Apparatus' function? Process, sort, deliver protein
What is a cell wall's function? Provides support and protection
What is a Ribosome's function? Amino acids link together to form proteins
What is a Lysosome's function? Contain enzyme to digest material
What is a cytoplasm's function? Holds organelles in the cell
Created by: eric0699
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