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BioCont. - Chapter 5

Macromolecules

TermDefinition
Four kinds of macromolecules Carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids
Dehydration Synthesis (Condensation) Reaction The building of larger molecules from smaller ones by removing water. Links monomers together to form polymers.
Hydrolysis Reaction The breaking of larger molecules through the addition of water to form smaller molecules.
Monosaccharides Single sugars (glucose, fructose, galactose)
Dissaccharides Two sugars linked together (sucrose, lactose, maltose)
Polysaccharides Many sugars put together (glycogen and cellulose)
Lipids Hydrophobic molecules (fats, oils, waxes, and steroids)
Triglycerides A type of fat that is made of two parts (a glycerol and three fatty acid chains)
Phospholipids A special kind of fat with a hydrophobic head and hydrophilic tails (these make up our cell membranes)
Steroids A special kind of fat characteristic of four fused rings (cholesterol and hormones such as testosterone)
Saturated Fatty Acid A fatty acid that has each carbon atom surrounded by a maximum number of hydrogen atoms (No double bonds)
Unsaturated Fatty Acid A fatty acid that has a double bond between at least two carbon atoms
Amino Acid Monomer of a protein, characterized by the R-group and linked by peptide bonds
Proteins/Enzymes A molecule with a specific shape that allows it to function, made out of many amino acids.
Denaturation A change in the environment (pH and temp.) that causes a protein to change shape and function (destroys the protein)
Nucleic Acids A molecule made up of nucleotides joined together (Two nucleic acids are DNA and RNA)
Nucleotide A nucleic acid monomer made of three parts (A five carbon sugar, a phosphate group, and a nitrogenous base)
DNA A nucleic acid containing the bases adenine, thymine, cytosine, and guanine. Double helix in shape.
RNA A single stranded nucleic acid that contain the bases uracil (instead of thymine), cytosine, guanine, and adenine.
Created by: Mr.Klein