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Taxonomy & Cladogram

Taxonomy and cladogram classification practice and information: Lesson 3

TermDefinition
Taxonomist Scientists who study taxonomy and use the classification system to identify and name organisms.
The Three Domains Bacteria, Archaea, and Eukarya
Domain Bacteria This domain consists of unicellular prokaryotes that lack a cell nucleus and membrane-bound organelles, but they are surrounded by a thick cell wall.
Domain Archaea This domain consists of unicellular prokaryotes that contain a cell wall that doesn't consist of peptidoglycan and has a cell membrane that has an unusual lipid in it that differs from any other organisms on Earth.
Domain Eukarya This domain consists of members which have cells that contain a nucleus and membrane-bound organelles. Most species in this domain are multicellular.
Taxonomy A standardized system of grouping and naming life used to allow scientists a way to communicate and maintain organization of the wide diversity of life on Earth.
Binomial Nomenclature A way organisms are commonly referred to as according to the two most specific taxonomic levels: genus and species, which are often in Latin.
The Four Kingdoms of Eukaryotes Protista, Plantae, fungi, and Animalia
Kingdom Protista Ancient eukaryotes that have some characteristics not shared by many other members of its domain, including the fact that many are unicellular.
Kingdom Plantae A kingdom of eukaryotes that are made up of plants which are autotrophs, lack mobility, have parts like roots, stems, leaves, and their cells have rigid cell walls around them.
Kingdom Fungi A kingdom of eukaryotes that are made up of mostly multicellular organisms that are similar to plants but cannot make their own food and instead have to use enzymes outside of their bodies to digest things like nearby leaves and fruits.
Kingdom Animalia A kingdom of eukayotes that are multicellular and heterotrophic and have cells lacking cell walls, and are motile at least at some point in their lives. This kingdom contains organisms like humans, birds, fish, and insects.
Dichotomous Key A type of flow chart made up of questions or paired statements about an organism. They help scientists identify organisms based on their traits.
Cladogram A branched diagram resembling a tree that shows the evolutionary relationship among organisms. It is used to show how similarities are derived from a common ancestry.
Nodes Places where a lineage branches off in a cladogram and they represent speciation events.
Taxonomic Levels of Classification (from the highest and broadest classification to the most specific taxonomic level) Domain, Kingdom, Phylum, Class, Order, Family, Genus, and Species
Aristotle Was one of the first to group and categorize living things, based on their characteristics.
Carlos Linnaeus An 18th century scientist who focused on his studies on planets but is best known to be the father of taxonomy.
Created by: Doerre927
 

 



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