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Taxonomy/Cladograms

Information

QuestionAnswer
Who was one of the first people to categorize living things based on characteristics and where were they from? Aristotle from Greece
What is the order of classification? Life - Domain - Kingdom - Phylum - Class - Order - Family - Genus - Species
Who is Carolus Linnaeus? Carolus Linnaeus was an 18th century scientist who worked with plants. He is best known as the father of taxonomy.
Organisms are commonly referred to according to what? Their genus and species. (Often in Latin)
What is binomial nomenclature? System of naming organisms.
What word is capitalized and what word is lowercase? The genus is capitalized and the species is lowercase.
Who studies taxonomy? Taxonomist
What are the three domains? Bacteria, Archaea and Eukarya.
What does the domain bacteria consist of? Unicellular prokaryotes that lack a cell nucleus and membrane-bound organelles, but are surrounded by a thick cell wall. They are incredibly diverse.
What does the domain archaea consist of? Unicellular prokaryotes that have a cell wall and a membrane but they consist of different materials. The most distinct features is that they are able to survive in the most extreme environments on Earth.
What does the domain eukarya consist of? Cells contain a nucleus and membrane-bound organelles, most are multicellular but some are unicellular, contains some of the most well known organisms, is very diverse, and can be found all over the world. Easiest to study in narrower classifications.
What are the four kingdoms of eukaryotes? Protista, Plantae, Fungi, and Animalia.
Protista characteristics. Different characteristics: many are unicellular, "dumping zone" for organisms that do not fit anywhere else, few are photosynthetic, very greatly in appearance, mobility, reproduction, and methods of obtaining food.
Plantae characteristics. Common eukaryotes,include wide variety of organisms, photosynthesize, autotrophs, multicellular,lack mobility, rely on wind/animals to cross pollinate, has roots stems and leaves, and cells have cell wall (mostly cellulose).
Fungi characteristics. Confused for plants, multicellular or unicellular, has cell wall (mainly chitin), are heterotrophs, grow filaments (hyphae), many feed by releasing enzymes outside of their bodies.
Animalia characteristics. Most well know - contains humans, diverse, all multicellular, all are heterotrophic, all cells lack a cell wall, are motile at one point in their life, organisms vary in body plans, reproduction, methods for obtaining food, and other factors.
What are the two methods for classification? Dichotomous keys and cladograms.
What is a dichotomous key? A type of flow char made of questions/paired statements about an organism based on their physical traits.
What is a cladogram? A branched diagram that shows evolutionary relationship among organisms. Often used to show similarities derived from common ancestry.
What are nodes? Places where a lineage branches off.
How can you tell how closely organisms are related? The fewer the number of nodes between organisms.
Created by: Doerre1022