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BioCont. - Chapter 8


Metabolism The sum of an organism's chemical reactions
Catabolic Reactions The breakdown of molecules which leads to a release of energy.
Anabolic Reactions The building of more complex molecules through the absorption of energy.
Kinetic Energy The energy of motion, often associated with thermal energy.
Potential Energy Stored energy that is able to be used to do work, is found in the bonds of molecules (chemical energy).
First Law of Thermodynamics Energy can never be created or destroyed, it can only change forms.
Second Law of Thermodynamics Whenever a reaction takes place, there is an increase in entropy and a release of energy.
Exergonic Reactions A reaction that takes place on its own and releases energy.
Endergonic Reactions Reactions that only take place when energy is absorbed (not spontaneous).
Free Energy Energy that can be used to perform functions or reactions.
Three types of work done by cells Chemical, Transport, and Mechanical
ATP Adenosine Triphosphate - The primary molecule used to make reactions take place
Catalyst A substance that changes the rate at which reactions occur by lowering the activation energy
Enzyme A protein that takes the role as a biological catalyst
Activation Energy The energy required to make a reaction take place
Substrate The substance that an enzyme acts on.
Active Site The area on a protein where a substrate binds.
Cofactor Non-protein substance that help proteins function (minerals/metals such as zinc, copper, and iron)
Coenzyme An organic cofactor such as vitamins
Allosteric Regulation The binding of a substance to a protein that causes the protein to change shape and function (can act as an activator, inhibitor or cooperatively)
Feedback Inhibition The products made by an enzyme turn off the enzyme so there is not too much product being made
Created by: Mr.Klein