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Taxonomy Vocabulary

Binomial Nomenclature The system of naming organisms scientifically, developed by Carolus Linnaeus; consists of the genus and species names.
Kingdom The highest level of taxonomic classification beneath that of the three domains.
Phylum The taxonomic level below kingdom and above class.
Class The taxonomic level below phylum and above order.
Order The taxonomic level below class and above family.
Family The taxonomic level below order and above genus.
Genus The taxonomic below the family and above the species; the first part of the binomial nomenclature.
Species A group of organisms that can interbreed to generate fertile offspring.
Cladogram A branching diagram representing a hypothesis about the evolutionary descent of groups of organisms from a common. ancestor.
Dichotomous Key A tool used to classify an organism through a series of questions with only two possible answers.
Ancestry (Ancestries) The lineage of successive parents and offspring that leads to an organism or species.
Cladistics A classification system based on shared characteristics between groups of organisms and their common ancestor.
Unicellular Composed of a single cell.
Multicellular Composed of more than one cell
Heterotrophic (heterotroph) An organism that must consume other organisms for energy.
Autotrophic (autotroph) An organism that obtains its energy from an abiotic sourse such as sunlight or inorganic chemicals.
Chemotrophic (chemotroph) An organism that can produce its own nourishment through the process of oxidizing inorganic compounds.
Eukaryoutic Cell A cell with a nucleus and membrane-bound organelles.
Prokaryotic Cell A cell lacking a nucleus or any other membrane-enclosed organelle.
Sexual Reproduction The reproductive process involving two parents whose genetic material is combined to produce a new organism different from themselves.
Asexual Reproduction A method of reproduction that requires only one parent and produces offspring identical to the parent.
Phylogeny The evolutionary development of a species.
Carolus Linnaeus an 18th century scientist who focused his studies on plants. Known as the "Father of Taxonomy"
Taxonomy s systematic process of classifying living organisms into different groups based on their physical traits and genetic relationships
What is are the levels of classification from broadest to most specific? Domain, Kingdom, Phylum, Class, Order, Family, Genus, Species
Organisms are most often referred to using their _______ and ______. This is called ________ _________. Organisms are most often referred to using their genus and species. This is called binomial nomenclature.
The genus is __________, while the species is _____________. The genus is capitalized, while the species is lowercase.
Binomial nomenclature are written is what font? Italics
Taxonomists The scientists who study taxonomy and use the classification system to identify and name organisms.
What are the three domains? Bacteria, Archaea, Eukarya
Domain Bacteria The domain that is mainly made up of unicellular prokaryotes.
Bacterial Traits -can be found almost everywhere on Earth -diverse -some need a host, while others don't -some use oxygen, others don't -photosynthetic -some can cause infections -beneficial
Domain Archaea The domain that is mainly made of unicellular prokaryotes. But these prokaryotes have cell walls that differ from Bacteria by composition.
Archaea Trait -can live almost everywhere, in extreme temperatures
Domain Eukarya The domain that contains eukaryotic organisms, mostly multicellular, but not all. Are very diverse
What are the Four Kingdoms of Eukarya? Protista, Plantae, Fungi, and Animalia
Protista Ancient and unique eukaryotes, with many being unicellular. Some are photosynthetic.
Plantae The Kingdom that contains plants, or autotrophs.
Fungi The Kingdom that contains, Fungi. Some are multicellular, while others are unicellular. They are heterotophs.
Hyphae A filament that fungi grow that helps differentiate them from plants.
Animalia The Kingdom that contains animals. It is very diverse, but all the organisms in it are multicellular. They have all been motile in a part of their lives.
sessile immobile or fixed in one place
setae hair like bristles used for movement
Cladogram a branched diagram resembling a tree that shows the evolutionary relationship among organisms.
nodes places where a lineage branches off in a cladogram.
Created by: Doerre12
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