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Ecology

TermDefinition
Competition: sharing a limiting resource (-,-) and limits population growth
Interspecific competition This is when 2 species fight for a limiting resource. Interference competition Exploitative competition
Interference competition: This is when one species is aggressive towards their competing species to keep them from the resource.
Exploitative competition: This is when species use "exploit" a resource (use up = exploit, basic competition).
Intraspecific competition This is when members within 1 species fight for a limiting resource and leads to density dependence.
Apparent competition 2 species share a common predator
Hutchinsonian niche: n-dimensional hypervolume in which we can think about the way that n resources, conditions, abiotic interactions influence the density of a species
Resource partitioning dividing up of shared resources between competitors, involves a niche shift for at least one species
Fundamental niche: The full Hutchinsonian niche WITHOUT competitors, often only look at shared axis
Realized niche: Hutchinsonian niche WITH competitors, always smaller than fundamental niche
Niche shift: Shift from a fundamental niche to a realized niche, it is often shown on one (RUF) axis. It's a change in niche based on competition and is usually from a fundamental niche to a realized niche to a realized niche in the presence of competition
Limiting similarity: Measure of how similar RUFs can be and still allow competitors to exist
Equilibrium: is a point where the population does not change (K=N)
Stable equilibrium: an equilibrium to which the population returns if it gets knocked off the equilibrium
Unstable equilibrium: population does not return to it
Competitive exclusion: Superior competitors outcompetes inferior
Allelopathy: The use of chemical toxins by plants to shift competition in their direction (interference competition)
Structured by competition: niches and community competition reflect strong competition
Character displacement: a shift in "character" or traits due to competition. Character displacement may look like a niche shift but it ALWAYS REQUIRES A CHANGE IN GENE FREQUENCIES. It leads to ADAPTIVE EVOLUTION with COMPETITION as the selective force
Competitive release: an increase in access to limiting resources with the removal of a competitor. Population increase and also niche use that shift from the realized niche to a fundamental niche.
S species richness, straight count of the number of species
H' Shannon-Weiner Diversity Index: a measure of diversity that simultaneously emphasizes S and species evenness
Pi proportional abundance of species
𝛂 (alpha) average species richness at local level
Ɣ (gamma): regional species richness
𝛃 (beta): measures habitat heterogeneity
Carnivores (true predators): eat all or part of their prey and tend to kill many prey in their lifetime
Herbivores: as predators they only tend to eat part of their prey, they may not kill the prey and prey on many victims in their lifetime
Parasites only consume part of their prey (host) and usually don't kill their prey and tend to have 1 or few hosts in their lifetime
Exploitation: Using up a resource, or eating another organism or using another organism
Pathogens: disease organisms
Crypsis: ability to hide
Aposematic coloration/coloring: Warning coloration that usually involves contrasting colors- almost always black, red, yellow, orange, and white
Müllerian mimicry: Organisms reinforce a message by looking similar when communicating a threat
Batesian mimicry: Mimics dilutes the message by having no threat (ex: viceroy mimics monarchs)
Coevolution: Reciprocal adaptive evolution in strongly interacting species responding to the selective forces that they impose on each other (milkweed+monarchs)
Outcomes of Predator Prey: 1. Predators eat prey to extinction → predators go extinct 2. Predators eat some prey but can only catch when prey populations are dense→ predators go extinct 3. Cycling patterns 4. We may not see that much of the effects
Facilitation: any interaction between species in which one species receives a benefit. Umbrella term with mutualism and commensalism under this larger term
Obligate mutualism: species cannot survive without its mutualist partner (ex: coral + zooxanthellae)
Facultative mutualism: Species can survive without its mutualist partner but does better with its partner
Specialist mutualist: Mutualistic relationship with one other species
General mutualist: A species that has a mutualistic relationship with many other species
Symbiosis: A relationship between 2 species (does not have to be beneficial) and lives in conjunction (very close, usually in contact)
Coevolution: reciprocal evolution between strongly interacting species due to selective forces that they place on eachother
Community: all individuals in all the species in a place.
Clements (1920): Community as supra-organism, all the pieces acting together, develop together, evolve together.
Gleason (1926): Individual response to the large scale pattern lead to spatial overlap and interactions but not to a tightly bound group of species.
Succession: Predictable changes in communities through time. It points primarily at changes in the dominant plants but these changes lead to changes in the dominant plants but these changes lead to changes in soils and in other species.
Sere: a successional stage that is often dominated by a particular/dominant species and interactions
Climax Community: the expected community at the end of succession under a current climate
Monoclimax Community: 1 expected climate community
Disclimax Community: different climax than expected because of local conditions, rare final climax community that differ from expected climax community.
Primary succession: succession starting with no organic material (start from scratch)
Secondary succession: succession that starts with organic material (not start from scratch, fires do not count because there is still nutrients in soil)
Chronosequence: time sequence that we can see in spatial areas
Pioneer community: first species and community in primary succession
Facilitation: The species in an earlier sere help the species in later seres
Inhibition: Species in earlier successional seres inhibit species from later successional seres. More common in the middle of succession.
Tolerance Later successional species are unaffected by earlier successional species. More common for species in the later successional stages.
Created by: 947884972083687