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Ch. 6 Chem in bio

Chapter 6 vocabulary-Biology

TermDefinition
Chemical reaction Process by which atoms or group of atoms in substances are reorganized into different substances.
Reactants The starting substance (left side of arrow).
Products Substance formed during reaction (right side)
Activation energy The minimum amount of energy needed for reactants to form products in a chemical reaction.
Catalyst A substance that lowers the activation energy needed to start a chemical reaction.
Enzyme The naturally occurring catalysts that speeds up the rate of chemical reactions in biological processes. Essential to life. Large protein molecules. Specific to one reaction. Reusable. Shape doesn't change.
Substrates Reactant to which an enyzme binds.
Active site Specific place where a substrate binds on an enzyme.
Macromolecules Large molecules that are formed by joining smaller, organic molecules together.
Polymers Molecules made from repeating units of identical or nearly identical compounds.
Carbohydrates Store energy and provide structural support. Most common organic molecule. Made cup of Carbon, hydrogen and oxygen.
Lipids Large, non-polar organic molecules. Non-polor=don't dissolve in water. Function of lipid-long term storage and energy in the body
Hydrophobic Can dissolve in water
Saturated Fats Simple fat molecules that have no double bonds between carbon molecules because they are saturated with hydrogen molecules. Two hydrogen attached to each carbon. Unhealthy fats
Unsaturated Fats Missing at least one hydrogen and are kinked in shape. Healthy fats that includes oils.
Bases Substance that release hydroxide ions when dissolved in water; a basic solution has a pH greater than 7.
pH How acidic or basic a solution is. Acidic= pH lower than 7. Neutral pH 6-8
Acids Substance that releases hydrogen ions when dissolved in water; an acidic solution has a pH less than 7.
Nucleotides A subunit of nucleic acid formed from a simple sugar, a phosphate group and a nitrogenous base.
Nucleic acids Complex macromolecules that store and communicate genetic information. Includes RNA sand DNA.
Amino acids Small compounds that are made of carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, hydrogen, and sometimes sulfur. All share the same general structure.
Protein Form muscles, transport O2 and acts as hormones and enzymes. Compound of small carbon compounds called amino acids. Determine how bodies look and function.
Energy All chemical reactions require energy.
Exothermic Reactions that release energy in the form of heat are exothermic.
Endothermic Reactions that absorb energy in the form of heat are endothermic.
Carbon Contained in all living things.
Characteristics of organic molecules 1. Contain carbon 2. Make small molecules at first. 3. Bond together to form larger molecules (polymers) 4. Each kind of organic molecule is built from a single type of building block.
Form of molecule Determines their function. Shape determines how they will behave and react with other molecules
Monosaccharides Sugars that consist of carbon rings.
Disaccharide Two sugars combined.
Polysaccharide Many sugars joined together.
Classes of carbohydrate polysaccharides Starch (quick energy), glycogen (food storage in animals), cellulose (structural support in plants).
Amino Acids Building block of protein joined through a peptide bond. Contain 5 parts: central carbon atom, carboxyl group, amino group, variable 'R' group. Shape and sequence of the R group control the shape and function of the protein.
Fatty Acid Building block of lids
DNA Blueprint of life-contains instructions on how to make unique set of proteins.
RNA Copy of DNA. Necessary to carry instructions from DNA to the cytoplasm where the protein is made.
Nucleotides Monomer of nucleic acid made of of 5 carbon sugar, a phosphate group and a nitrogen base
Substrates Reactants that bind to an enzyme
Active Site The specific location where a substrate binds on an enzyme.
Optimal temperature for enzyme activity Thirty-seven degrees Fahrenheit
Products Are on the right side of the arrow
Reactants Chemical reactants are on the left side of the arrow.
Elements Both sides of a chemical equation have the same number of elements
Created by: AKovach