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Chapter 13

Meiosis and Sexual Life Cycles

genetics scientific study of heredity and inherited variation
genes offspring with coded information in the form of hereditary units
gametes reproductive cells
asexual reproduction a single individual is the sole parent and passes copies of all its genes to its offspring without the fusion of gametes
clone a group of genetically identical individuals
homologous chromosomes carrying genes controlling same inherited characteristics
haploid cells single set of chromosomes; 23
fertilization union of gametes,culminating in fusion of their nuclei
what cells can undergo meiosis? diploid
Meiosis I main function separates homologous chromosomes
What stages are in Meiosis I? -Prophase I -Metaphase I -Anaphase I -Telophase I and Cytokinesis
Prophase I -centrosome movement, spindle formation -cross over: nonsister chromatids are broken and rejoined
Metaphase I -arranged homologous chromsomes, one pair facing each pole
Anaphase I -protein breakdown -homologs move opposite poles
Telophase I and Cytokinesis -haploids -cleavage furrow
Meiosis II main function separate sister chromatids
What stages are in Meiosis II? -Prophase II -Metaphase II -Anaphase II -Telophase II & Cytokinesis
Prophase II -form spindle apparatus
Metaphase II Metaphase plate
Anaphase II protein breakdown, allow chromatids to separate
Telophase II and Cytokinesis chromosomes begin decondensing , nuclei form
Created by: savepeople