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digestive system

digestive system vocabulary

TermDefinition
alimentary canal the whole passage along which food passes through the body from mouth to anus. It includes the esophagus, stomach, and intestines.
a nus the thirteenth letter of the Greek alphabet (Ν, ν), transliterated as ‘n.’.
appendicitis a serious medical condition in which the appendix becomes inflamed and painful.
appendix a tube-shaped sac attached to and opening into the lower end of the large intestine in humans and some other mammals.Also called vermiform appendix.
bile a bitter greenish-brown alkaline fluid that aids digestion and is secreted by the liver and stored in the gallbladder.
chemical digestion Chemical digestion is the process by which food is broken down and has most of its nutrients extracted.
chyme the pulpy acidic fluid which passes from the stomach to the small intestine, consisting of gastric juices and partly digested food.
colon The colon is also called the large intestine. The ileum (last part of the small intestine) connects to the cecum (first part of the colon) in the lower right abdomen.
constipation a condition in which there is difficulty in emptying the bowels, usually associated with hardened feces.
diarrhea a condition in which feces are discharged from the bowels frequently and in a liquid form.
esophagus the part of the alimentary canal that connects the throat to the stomach; the gullet. In humans and other vertebrates it is a muscular tube lined with mucous membrane.
feces waste matter discharged from the bowels after food has been digested; excrement.
gall bladder the small sac-shaped organ beneath the liver, in which bile is stored after secretion by the liver and before release into the intestine.
gastric juice a thin, clear, virtually colorless acidic fluid secreted by the stomach glands and active in promoting digestion
hydrochloric acid a strongly acidic solution of the gas hydrogen chloride in water.
large intestine the cecum, colon, and rectum collectively
lipases Medical Definition of lipase. : an enzyme (as one secreted by the pancreas) that catalyzes the breakdown of fats and lipoproteins usually into fatty acids and glycerol.
liver a large very vascular glandular organ of vertebrates that secretes bile and causes important changes in many of the substances contained in the blood (as by converting sugars into glycogen which it stores up until required and by forming urea)
mechanical digestion Mechanical digestion is the physical act of breaking down the food by non-chemical means.
mucus a slimy substance, typically not miscible with water, secreted by mucous membranes and glands for lubrication, protection, etc.
oral cavity In biological anatomy, commonly referred to as the mouth, under formal names such as the oral cavity, buccal cavity, or in Latin cavum oris, is the opening through which many animals take in food and issue vocal sounds.
pancreas a large gland behind the stomach which secretes digestive enzymes into the duodenum. Embedded in the pancreas are the islets of Langerhans, which secrete into the blood the hormones insulin and glucagon.
pepsin the chief digestive enzyme in the stomach, which breaks down proteins into polypeptides.
peristalsis the involuntary constriction and relaxation of the muscles of the intestine or another canal, creating wave-like movements that push the contents of the canal forward.
ptyalin a form of amylase found in the saliva of humans and some other animals.
rectum the final section of the large intestine, terminating at the anus.
rennin an enzyme secreted into the stomach of unweaned mammals, and in some lower animals and plants, causing the curdling of milk.
saliva watery liquid secreted into the mouth by glands, providing lubrication for chewing and swallowing, and aiding digestion.
salivary glands The salivary glands in mammals are exocrine glands, glands with ducts, that produce saliva. They also secrete amylase, an enzyme that breaks down starch into maltose
small intestine the part of the intestine that runs between the stomach and the large intestine; the duodenum, jejunum, and ileum collectively.
stomach In humans, the stomach is located in the upper abdomen, below the esophagus and above the small intestine.
ulcer A peptic ulcer is a sore on the lining of your stomach, small intestine or esophagus. A peptic ulcer in the stomach is called a gastric ulcer.
villi are small, finger-like structures in the small intestine. They help to absorb digested food. Each villus has micro-villi which increase the surface area of the intestinal walls.
Created by: Darleneb