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Nutrition

Vocabulary

TermDefinition
alimentary canal tubular passage functioning in the digestion and absorption of food and the elimination of food residue, beginning at the mouth and terminating at the anus.
anus is an opening at the opposite end of an animal's digestive tract from the mouth
appendicitis Appendicitis is an inflammation of the appendix, a finger-shaped pouch that projects from your colon on the lower right side of your abdomen. The appendix doesn't seem to have a specific purpose.
appendix In humans the appendix is small and has no known function, but in rabbits, hares, and some other herbivores it is involved in the digestion of cellulose.
bile Bile is a yellow-green fluid that is made by the liver, stored in the gallbladder and passes through the common bile duct into the duodenum where it helps digest fat.
chemical digestion The term mechanical digestion refers to the physical breakdown of large pieces of food into smaller pieces which can subsequently be accessed by digestive enzymes. In chemical digestion, enzymes break down food into the small molecules the body can use.
chyme Chyme is pasty in consistency and contains the partially digested food, water, hydrochloric acid and digestive enzymes
colon The longest part of the large intestine, extending from the cecum to the rectum. Water and electrolytes are absorbed, solidified, the colon also contains bacteria that help in the body's absorption of nutrients from digested material.
constipation Constipation refers to bowel movements that are infrequent or hard to pass. ... Constipation has many causes. Common causes include slow movement of stool within the colon, irritable bowel syndrome, and pelvic floor disorders
diarrhea Diarrhea, also spelled diarrhoea, is the condition of having at least three loose or liquid bowel movements each day. A number of non-infectious causes can result in diarrhea.
esophagus is an organ in vertebrates which consists of a muscular tube through which food passes from the mouth area to the stomach. Food is passed through the esophagus by using the process of peristalsis.
feces Feces, also spelled faeces, also called excrement, solid bodily waste discharged from the large intestine through the anus during defecation
gallblader A pear-shaped organ located below the liver that stores the bile secreted by the liver. During and after a fatty meal, the gallbladder contracts, delivering the bile through the bile ducts into the intestines to help with digestion.
gastric juice almost colorless liquid secreted by the glands in the lining of the stomach. Its essential constituents are the digestive enzymes pepsin and rennin (see rennet), hydrochloric acid, and mucus.
Hydrochloric acid an aqueous solution of hydrogen chloride HCl that is a strong corrosive irritating acid, is normally present in dilute form in gastric juice, and is widely used in industry and in the laboratory.
large intestine the more terminal division of the vertebrate intestine that is wider and shorter than the small intestine, typically divided into cecum, colon, and rectum, and concerned especially with the resorption of water and the formation of feces.
lipase lipase noun Biochemistry. any of a class of enzymes that break down fats, produced by the liver, pancreas, and other digestive organs or by certain plants.
liver The liver performs various functions, such as manufacture proteins, including albumin and blood clotting factors; to synthesize, store, and process fats, including fatty acids and cholesterol
mechanical digestion The breaking down of food using chemical agents, such as enzymes and bile.Mechanical digestion. The breaking down of food by physical means.
mucus Mucus is a slippery secretion produced by mucous membranes. ... It is a viscous colloid containing antiseptic enzymes,immunoglobulins, inorganic salts, proteins such as lactoferrin
oral cavity the part of the mouth behind the gums and teeth that is bounded above by the hard and soft palates and below by the tongue and by the mucous membrane connecting it with the inner part of the mandible.
pancreas s a long, flat gland present in the belly. It is a vital part of the digestive system and is responsible for regulating blood sugar levels.
pepsin Pepsin is a digestive enzyme secreted by the chief cells in the stomach in its inactive form called as pepsinogen.
peristalsis is characterized by alternate contraction and relaxation, which pushes ingested food through the digestive tract towards its release at the anus.
ptyalin Saliva contains the enzyme amylase, also called ptyalin, which is capable of breaking down starch into simpler sugars such as maltose and dextrin that can be further broken down in the small intestine.
rectum The rectum is the final straight portion of the large intestine in humans and some other mammals, and the gut in others
rennin any of several complex proteins that are produced by cells and act as catalysts in specific biochemical reactions.
saliva a slightly alkaline secretion of water, mucin, protein, salts, and often a starch-splitting enzyme (such as ptyalin) that is secreted into the mouth bysalivary glands, lubricates ingested food, and often begins the breakdown of starches.
salivary glands a small organ that produces saliva in the mouth
small intestine the narrow part of the intestine that lies between the stomach and colon, consists of duodenum, jejunum, and ileum, secretes digestive enzymes, and is the chief site of the digestion of food into small molecules which are absorbed into the body
stomach is a muscular organ that is found in our upper abdomen.The stomach is able to secrete enzymes and acid from its cells, which enables it to perform its digestive functions.
ulcer An ulcer is a wound or lesion that is inflamed and painful. Ulcers are commonly found in the stomach where they are called peptic ulcers.
villi A minute projection arising from a mucous membrane, especially: a. One of the numerous vascular projections of the small intestine. b. One of the fingerlike projections of the chorion that contribute to the formation of the placenta in mammals.
Created by: RonaldDiaz