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chapter 16

caravel a light, fast sailing ship with a rudder and lateen (long, triangular) sails
henry the navigator son of King John I of Portugal, patron and supporter of explorers
vasco da gama Portuguese explorer who traveled to Calicut, India in 1497
Christopher columbus Italian sailor who traveled west to reach China but discovered the Caribbean islands instead
ferdinand magellan first explorer to attempt to circumnavigate the globe; he was killed on the way, but some of his sailors completed the journey
circumnavigate travel completely around the world
sir francis drake English explorer and second person to circumnavigate the globe
encomienda system in which a Spanish colonist received land and Native American workers, to whom they were required to teach Christianity
hernan cortez Spanish explorer and conqueror of the Aztec empire (in what is now, Mexico)
conquistador Spanish word for conqueror; name for Spanish military leaders who fought against the native people of the Americas
moctezuma ll Aztec emperor at the time of Cortes's conquest
francisco pizarro conqueror of Inca Empire in Peru (for the Spanish)
atahualpa ruler of Inca Empire, killed by Spanish invaders led by Pizarro
viceroys officials who ruled large areas of Spain's American colonies in the king's name
bartolome de las casas Spanish priest who criticized treatment of Native Americans, and suggested that slaves from Africa be used as workers instead
treaty of tordesillas treaty signed in 1493 dividing the Americas between Spain and Portugal, along an imaginary line
columbian exchange the exchange of plants, animals, and diseases between the people of Europe and the Americas because of contact brought by exploration
mercantilism the European economic policy that called for nations to gain wealth in order to build a strong military and expand influence
balance of trade subsidies the amount of goods sold by a country compared to those bought from other countries; a favorable balance of trade meant selling more goods than were bought
capitalism economic system in which private individuals rather than governments perform most of the economic activity, with the goal of making a profit
joint-stock companies a company in which investors buy shares of stock, receiving a portion of the profits, but only risk losing the amount of their investment if the company fails
plantations large farms that usually specialize in growing one type of crop for profit
triangular trade trading network that brought goods from Europe to Africa to be traded for slaves, took slaves from Africa to the Americas to be sold, then brought American goods back to Europe
middle passage name for voyages that brought slaves across the atlantic ocean to north america and the west indies
olaudah equiano African who wrote about the horrific conditions Africans endured on Middle Passages voyages
african diaspora the spread of people of African descent through the Americas and Western Europe as a result of the slave trade, eventually spreading African culture throughout the Western world
henry hudson Dutch sailor who looked unsuccessfully for the Northwest Passage and explored the river that is now named after him (in New York state)
subsidies grants of money given by governments for purposes such as helping people start new businesses
Created by: $jay$