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Stack #2925739

QuestionAnswer
What are the functions of the Spinal Cord? Conduction, Reflexes, Neural intergration, locomotion
What is the function of astrocytes in the Blood Brain Barrier? They have tight junctions that between them that make them impermeable to blood.
What is the function of the Blood Brain Barrier? Maintain stable environment for the brain and protect from toxins
How many ml of blood does the ependymal replace and how often? 150 ml every 8 hrs
What can be a fault of the limbic system being activated? pissing on the self
What is the cingulate gyrus of the limbic system responsible for? expressing emotion, gives gestures, resolving conflict
What is the Amygdaloid body responsible for? recognizes angry or fearful expression (danger)
What does the limbic system include? Amygdaloid body and cingulate gyrus
What is the major function of the limbic system? motion
What are the 2 functional brain systems? Limbic system and reticular formation
What lines the ventricles and circulate CSF? Ependymal cells
What is found in all 4 ventricles and produce the CSF? Choroid plexus
How does the CSF protect the brain? It acts as a liquid cushion and allows the brain to float. It protects from trauma and nourishes it
What helps protect the brain? CSF, Meninges, Blood Brain Barrier
Expressions linked to a memory emotional memory
Riding a bike is an example of what type of memory? motor memory
Skill (playing an instrument) Procedural memory
How can you transfer info from STM to LTM? Rehersal, conditional state, association, automatic transfer
Unlimited capacity Long term memory
Limited to 7-8 pieces of info Short term memory
2 stages of storage in Declarative memory LTM, STM
Memory of facts (names, faces,words) Declarative memory
What are the different types of memory? Declarative, procedural, emotional, motor
What are the 2 regions of the language function? Brooks area, Wernickes area
What does the language function involve? almost all of the association cortex of the left hemisphere
What are the 2 higher mental functions? Language, memory
What is the Reticular formation inhibited by? sleep centers, drugs, alcohol
What is the function of Reticular formation? send impulses to the cerebral cortex to keep you alert, filter out repetitive info and weak stimuli (99%)
Describe the anatomy of the spinal cord Stretches from brain stem to the first lumbar vertebrae and at L1 it tapers off into the medullary cone.
Cauda Equine are what and extend to where? spinal root bundles and S5 of the sacrum
What does the spinal cord give rise to ? spinal nerves
From the spinal cord is what? Anterior root or posterior root, they come together to form the spinal nerves
The meninges surround what? spinal cord and roots
What is the gap between the arachnoid and pia mater with CSF that a spinal cap is taken from Subarachnoid space (L3-L5)
At the cross section of the spinal cord, describe the grey and white matter white is on the outside, grey on the inside
Ascending tracts send info up the spinal cord
Descending tracts carry info down the spinal cord
What does many of the tracts undergo? decussation
In the ascending tracts, where are the receptors for body movement, limb positions, touch and pressure decussate at? medulla
Where is the receptors for pain, heat and cold decussate in the ascending tracts? spinal cord
In the ascending tracts, from the origin to their destination in the brain, the impulse travels across how many neurons? 3
The neurons that detect a stimulus to spinal cord/ brainstem are? 1st order neurons
The neurons that carry it to the brainstem are the? 2nd order neurons
Carry signal to the cerebral cortex in the ascending tracts 3rd oder neurons
Descending tracts involve how many neurons? 2
Explain the function of the 2 neurons in the descending tracts upper motor neurons in the soma in cerebral cortex or brainstem go to the axon and terminates on a lower motor neuron in the brainstem or spinal cord
Grey matter of the spinal cord is the Intergrating center
What are the types of horns that the grey matter have? 2 anterior, 2 posterior, 2 lateral
What does the grey matter contain? interneurons and cell bodies of affarent and efferent nerve fibers
Explain what happens with the grey matter from the spinal cord branches into posterior root (dorsal) and anterior root
What do the posterior roots do? carry sensory fibers to the spinal cord that enter posterior horn
What is the function of the anterior horn? contain somas from somatic motor neurons and the info goes to the anterior root then to the somatic motor neurons
there are 31 pairs of spinal nerves which include 2 cervical (c1-c8), 12 thoracic (t1-t12). 5 lumber(l1-l5), 5 sacral(s1-s5), 1 coccygeal(co1)
The spinal nerves split into what? anterior ramus and posterior rams that lead away from the spinal cord
The posterior ramus innervates the muscles, joints, skin
In the anterior rami, the spinal nerves of the thoracic region form? intercostal nerves
The other nerves in the anterior rami form the 5 plexuses
The 5 plexuses are cervical, brachial, lumbar, sacral, coccygeal
Describe the cervical plexus (c1-c5) includes the phrenic nerve that innervates the diaphragm. mostly includes head, neck, face, shoulder, chest. somatosensory nerves .
Describe the brachial plexus includes spinal nerves c5-t1, to innervates upper limb, neck and shoullder. merge together to form trunks (upper middle lower)
Describe the lumber plexus L1-L4 innervates the lower limb
Describe the sacral plexus L4-S5 and coccygeal S4,S5,CO1 innervates hip and lower limb, contains sciatic nerve
What is a dermatome map? is a diagram that identifies dermatomes, or areas of skin that are innervated by a single nerve, and their corresponding nerve roots along the length of the spinal column.
Created by: cdixon10