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People, Places, Laws

Rachel Carson "Silent Spring" (1962), environmental damages by DDT/pesticides and increased awareness at start of modern environmental movement
Sherwood Rowland and Mario Molinau 1974: CFCs destroy good ozone
Paul Ehrlich Biologist, "The Population Bomb" 1968: overpopulation/future food issues
Thomas Malthus British economist, "human population cannot continue to increase. Consequences will be war, famine, and pestilence (disease)"
Garrett Hardin "Tragedy of the Commons" in "Science" 1968: rational people will exploit shared resources
Aldo Leopold "A Sound County Almanac" 1948: "Land Ethic" --> humans are ethnically responsible for serving as the protectors of nature
Wangari Maathai 2004 Peace Prize for "Green Belt" movement (planting trees in Kenya that provided food/fuel, improved soil erosion/desertification
John Muir Sierra Club (1892), fought for prevention of damming of Hetch Valley in Yosemite
Gifford Pinchot First chief of U. S. Forest Service, used principles of sustainable yield by advocating management of resources for multiple use
Theodore Roosevelt U. S. president, established first National Wildlife Refuge at Pelican Island
E. O. Wilson Biologist, co-coined with MacArthur, the theory of island biogeography, which identifies factors that regulate species richness on islands
Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Controls hazardous waste with cradle-to-grave system requirements
Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA) Identifies Superfund sites, designed to identify and clean up abandoned hazardous waste dump sites
Nuclear Waste Policy Act Encourages development of a U. S. high-level nuclear waste repository site by 2014 (original proposed site was NV)
Low-Level Radioactive Policy Act Requires all states to have facilities to handle low-level radioactive wastes
Basel Convention Not signed by U. S., treaty resulted in hazardous waste from developed nations being shipped overseas to developing countries, requires that they must give full permission to accept it
Clean Air Act Sets emission standards for cars, addresses requirements for reducing ozone depletion and acid deposition
Kyoto Protocol Not signed by U. S., controls global warming by setting greenhouse gas emissions targets for developed countries
Montreal Protocol Not signed by U. S., phase out of ozone depleting substances
Safe Drinking Water Act Sets maximum containment levels for pollutants that may have adverse effects on health
Clean Water Act Sets maximum permissible amounts of water pollutants that can be discharged into waterways, main goals: reduce surface water pollution into lakes, rivers, streams
Water Quality Act Addresses storm water pollution issues
Ocean Dumping Ban Act Bans dumping of sewage sludge and industrial waste in the ocean
Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act Regulates coal mining activities in the U. S. and requires reclaiming of land after use
Federal Mine Safety and Health Act Sets forth federal health and safety regulations for all coal and non-coal mining operations in the U. S.
Energy Policy Act Law provides incentives for various energy resources
Endangered Species Act Identifies threatened and endangered species in the U. S. and puts their protection ahead of economic considerations
CITES International treaty, lists species that cannot be commercially traded as live specimens/wildlife products
Marine Mammal Protection Act Protects all marine mammals by prohibiting the taking of marine mammals and marine mammals products into the U. S.
Lacey Act Prohibits interstate transport of wild animals without federal permit
Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, Rodenticide Act Regulates the effectiveness of pesticides
Food Quality Protection Act Sets pesticide limits in food, and all (in)active ingredients must be screened for estrogenic/endocrine effects
Persistent Organic Pollutants Treaty International treaty, not ratified by U. S., agreement to phase out 12 organic persistent pollutants (dirty dozen)
Aral Sea, Uzbekistan/Kazakhstan and Mono Lake, California Lake that's drying up, salinity is rising due to water diversion for irrigating crops
Ogallala Aquifer Largest aquifer, depleted for agricultural use
Minamata, Japan Mental impairments, birth defects, deaths caused by mercury in Minamata Bay by a factory, mercury was converted to methyl-mercury, bio-accumulated in fish and bio-magnified through food chains
Aswan High Dam, Egypt Silt that made the tile region fills the reservoir, lack of irrigation controls causes waterlogging/salinization, parasitic disease schistosomiasis thrives in water of reservoir
Chesapeake Bay, Maryland/Virginia Largest estuary in U. S., dead zone in 70s --> hypoxic conditions created from nutrients loading by fertilizers --> cultural
Love Canal Housing Development, Niagara Falls, NY Hazardous chemicals buried in an old canal leaked into homes/school yards --> passage of Comprehensive Environmental Response/Liability Act (Superfund Act)
Three Mile Island, Pennsylvania 3/29/79, cooling system shut down, partial core meltdown, continent structure worked well to retain all radioactive materials, but some gas was purposely released to reduce pressure in structure and avoid a more serious accident
Bhopal, India 12/2/84, poisonous gas was accidentally released by a Union Carbide pesticide plant killing about 5,000 people, caused serious health effects to about 60,000 people
Chernobyl, Ukraine 4/26/86, unauthorized safety test, fire/explosion, millions were exposed to unsafe levels of radiation
Valdez, Alaska 3/24/89, oil tank hit reef, spilled 260,000 barrels of oil, largest spill in U. S. waters
Yucca Mountain, Nevada Proposed site for permanent storage of high-level nuclear waste, critics are concerned about safety of transporting high level radioactive waste to site and the proximity of the site to a volcano and earthquake fault
Three Gorges Dam, China World's largest dam, Yangtze River, submerged ecosystems, cities, archaeological sites, displaced 2,000,000 people, fragmented river habitat
Clinch River, TN Power plant near Knoxville had breach in retention pond holding sludge from the coal burning power plant, released up to 1,000,000,000 gallons of mercury and arsenic containing sludge into watershed
Created by: archergirl
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