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Micro Test 4

Animals are germ-free ___ in-utero
Colonization Through delivery, Respiratory tract, and Digestive tract
Lactobacilli in vaginal tract prevents pathogens from growing in its 5 pH
3 types of symbiosis 1. commensalism 2. mutualism 3. parasitism
commensalism one organism benefits mycobacterium in external ear
mutualism both organisms benefit e coli in gut
parasitism one is harmed and the other benefits infections
Opportunistic organisms potentially pathogenic organisms which do not cause disease under normal circumstances
Steps to establishing infection 1. Portal of entry 2. Adherence 3. Colonization 4. Delivery of effector proteins 5. penetration/avoidance of host defenses 6. pathogen damage of host cell
Capsules prevents phagocyte from adhering to bacteria
Exotoxins gram positive
cytotoxins target any cells with ribosomes
neurotoxins targets neurons
enterotoxins targets gut
Diphtheria toxin lysogenic phage and inhibits protein synthesis
Botulism toxin inhibits release of acetylcholine
tetanus toxin release of acetylcholinesterase
Endotoxins gram negative
Mechanisms of Pathogenicity in Viruses 1. Attachment receptors 2. Avoiding hosts immune response
Classifying infectious diseases 1. Behavior 2. Frequency of occurrence 3. severity/duration
Chain of infection 1. reservoirs 2. transmission 3. portals of exit
Behavior communicable, noncommunicable, highly communicable
Endemic constantly present in low numbers
epidemic localized in short time period
pandemic world wide epidemic
reservoirs human, animal, nonliving
contact direct, indirect, droplet
vehicle waterborne, food borne, airborne
vector mechanical, biological
portals of exit respiratory tract, GI tract, urogenital tract, skin or wound
Predisposing factors of disease anything that makes someone more susceptible to a disease than someone else
5 steps of Development of Disease 1. incubation 2. prodromal period 3. illness period 4. decline period 5. convalescence period
outbreaks perfect storms
common source epidemics everyone gets sick at the same time
propagated epidemics first wave infects the next wave
4 steps of epidemiological investigation 1. gather data 2. graph and analyze 3. source 4. prevention
innate immunity nonspecific, immediate but not as effective
acquired immunity specific about everything, not immediate but more effective
Non-specific factors 1. intact skin 2. interferons 3. complement proteins
Interferons produced by virally infected cells
complement proteins found in blood
neutrophils 70% of WBCs
monocytes 3-5% of WBCs
inflammation 1. swelling 2. redness 3. heat 4. loss of function 5. tenderness
How swelling occurs 1. basophils and mast cells respond 2. release histamine
fever can be good or bad because it slows down bacteria
exogenous pyrogenes bacteria/viruses that cause fever
endogenous pyrogenes released in blood stream and travels to the hypothalamus to cause fever
Macrophages mature monocyte, free or fixed
Class 1 LH antigens found on surface of every cell except RBCs, alert immune system to kill
Class 2 LH antigens found on surface of all antigen presenting cells, presents antigens so T cell can recognize it
T cells self recognition in thymus
Clonal expression cell divides
differentiation 4 types of T cells
T helper cells prevent opportunistic infections and are in charge
CD4 cells instructors
cytokines chemical messengers
cytotoxic T cells kills any cell that has undergone an intracellular assault
Supressor T cells surpasses immune response and brings it back to homeostasis
Memory T cells remembers antigen after it encounters it
B cells programmed in red bone marrow and are shipped to another are of bone marrow, receive antigen specificity to become activated
plasma cells antibody producing cells
antibodies 2 chains of amino acids
Created by: aleahgoodson
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