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Genetics

Dec 12 2018 test

TermDefinition
Heredity The passing of traits from parents to offspring
Genetics branch of biology concerned with the study of genes, genetic variation, and heredity in living organisms.
Genes Instructions for an inherited trait
Chromosomes Where genes are located
DNA Is the actual molecule that carries the instructions for inherited traits. Found in chromosomes.
Phenotype What you physically look like. Your outside appearance. ie brown vs red hair
Genotype combination of alleles that an organism gets from its parents
Dominant allele Capital Letters. If even one dominant allele is present it will show and hide the recessive allele
recessive allele Lowercase letters. You can show a recessive trait only f you get one from each parent
trait Different forms of characteristics that we have. Height, tallness, eye color, hair colors
monohybrid Punnett Square square used to predict the probability of an offspring's genotype and phenotype
homozygous Having two of the same allele. Either all dominant or all recessive. rr or RR Also called purebred.
heterozygous Having two different alleles. One dominant and one recessive. Rr Also called hybrid
alleles The letters that represent the traits that offspring get from their parents.
probibility The mathematical chance that something can happen
Selective Breeding/Artificial Selection When humans select for the traits that they desire in animals and plants. ie breeding small chihauhuas together to continue to get smaller chihuahuas.
natural Selection the process whereby organisms better adapted to their environment tend to survive and produce more offspring. ie they have more useful phenotypes. THIS HAPPENS SPONTAEOUSLY.
sexual reproduction Where offspring are formed from the union of parents. Share genetic material with both parents. Look similar to parents, but not identical
Assexual reproduction Split off from only one parent. Will be identical to that parent.
Genetic variation The differences in genes and traits among individual organism in a population.
Created by: Poynter