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cell structure and function

organelles little organs that make up nucleus
cytoplasm the protion of the cell outside the nucleus
what are the two groups of the eukaryotic cell? nucleus and cytoplasm
nucleus contains all the cells DNA and and with it coded instructions for making proteins and other important molecules
nuclear envelope surrounds nucleus, composed of two membranes, dotted with thousands of nuclear pores which allow material to move in and out of nucleus, steady stream of proteins, RNA, and other milocules move through the nuclear pores to and from the rest of the cell
chromatin granular material you can see in the nucleus, consists of DNA bound to protein, most of the time chromatin is spread throughout the nucleus, when a cell divides chromatin condenses to form chromosomes
chromosomes distinct threadlike structures contains genetice information that is passed from one generation of cells to the next
nucleolus small dense region, where assembly of ribsomes begins
what are proteins assembled on? ribosomes
ribosomes small particles of RNA protein found throughout the cytoplasm, produce proteins by following coded instructions from the nuclues
endoplasmic reticulum internal membrane system in the eukaryotic cell; site where the lipid components of the cell memebrane are assembled, along with proteins and other materials that are exported from the cell
rough ER portion or ER involved in the synthesis of proteins, ribosomes found on it surface
smooth ER ribosomes not found on surface; contains collections of enzymes that perform speacilized tasks, including synthesis of membrane lipids and the detoxification of drugs
golgi aparatus stacked closly of membranes, function is to modify, sort, and package proteins and other materials form the ER for storage in the cell or secretion outside the cell, custimization shop, finishing touches
lysosomes "clean up crew"; filled with enzymes
vacuoles saclike sturctrures that store materials such aas water, salts, proteins, and carbohydrates
mitochodria organelles that convert the chemical energy stored in food into compounds that are more convientent for the cell to use
chloroplast organelles that capture the energy from sunlight and convert it into chemical energy in a process called photosynthesis
what two organelles are capable of reproducing on their own and have their own DNA? Chloroplast and mitochondria
cytoskeleton a network of protein filaments that help the cell to maintain its shape. also helps with movement
Microfilaments threadlike structures made of a preotein called actin
Microtubles hollow stuctures made up of proteins known as tubulins, important for cell divison
Centrioles located near the nucleus and help to organize cell divison-not found in plant cells.
cilia and flagella enable cells to swim rapidly through liquids, can produce a considerable force, almost act like the oars of a boat pushing the cell forward
cell membrane regulates what enters and leaves the cell; provides protection and supportl; composed of a lipid bilayer; protein molecules are mebedded in the bilayer, form channels and pumps to move material across the cell membrane
cell membrane (cont) carboohydrates are attached some of proteins; allows cells to indetify one another
cell wall found in- plants, algae, fungi, and many prokaryotes; cells walls are porous enough to allow water, oxygen, and dioxide in eaisly; main function in to provide support and prtection for the cell; plant cell walls made of cellulose(carbohydrate fiber)
Created by: studybio