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U3 - Genetics

Reproduction and Genetics

genetics the study of heredity, or passing on of traits from an organism to its offspring
Gregor Mendel the Father of Genetics - he experimented with pea plants to learn how traits are passed on
trait a specific characteristic of an organism that is expressed by genes and can be influenced by the environment
offspring the new organism that is produced by a parent organism
heredity the passing of genetic information from generation to generation
gene a unit of heredity; a portion of DNA on a chromosome that contains certain traits
DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) a chemical found on a chromosome that contains genes
dominant describes a trait that dominates, or covers over, another form of that trait
capital letter represents a dominant trait
recessive describes a trait that is covered over by a dominant trait
lower case letter represents a recessive trait
chromosome rod shaped structures found in the nucleus of every cell that contains DNA
23 the number of pairs of chromosomes in the nucleus of human cells
46 the total number of chromosomes in the nucleus of human cells
genotype the written letters that describe the physical appearance of an organism
2 the number of letters that make up a genotype - TT, Tt, tt
phenotype the words that describe the physical appearance - tall, short
diverse offspring offspring that are genetically different and have different traits
uniform offspring offspring that are genetically alike and have the same traits
genetically identical exact genetic copies - all DNA is identical
heterozygous two forms or variations of a gene - Bb, Gg, Tt - one dominant and one recessive
homozygous two of the same form or variation of a gene - both dominant BB or both recessive bb
hybrid another name for heterozygous
pure (or purebred) another name for homozygous
mutation a change in DNA that is the main cause of diversity in organisms
diverse different
variation the diversity (difference) in organisms
environmental change factors such as food, drugs, and exposure to toxins that can change the DNA of an organism
allele the two forms of a gene - T,t or D,d
Created by: Blackcat8765
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