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chapter 15

renaissance The great period of rebirth in art, literature, and learning in the 14th-16th centuries, which marked the transition into the modern periods of European history
humanism a renaissance intellectual movement in which thinkers studied classical texts and focused on human potential and achievements
secular worldly; not pertaining to church matters or religion; temporal
baldassare castiglione an italian diplomat and writer who lived from 1478 to 1529; in 1528 published the most famous book of the renaissance, "the book of the courtier"
niccolo machiavelli Italian Renaissance writer, described government in the way it actually worked (ruthless). He wrote The Prince (the end justifies the mean).
lorenzo de medici (1469-1492) The Medici's were a great banking family in Florence in the 15th century. Ruled government of Florence from behind the scene.
leonardo da vinci Italian Renaissance artist that painted The Last Supper and Mona Lisa, he was also an engineer, architect, sculptor, and scientist.
michelangelo buonarroti (1475-1564) Worked in Rome. Painted the Sistine Chapel for Pope Julius II. Sculpted the statue of David.
raphael (1483-1520) Italian Renaissance painter; he painted frescos, his most famous being The School of Athens.
johannes gutenberg The European inventor of the printing press, which allowed books to be printed quickly and economically. He used his invention to print copies of the Bible. This innovation aided the spread of Renaissance and Reformation ideas throughout Europe.
desiderius erasmus Dutch humanist and theologian who was the leading Renaissance scholar of northern Europe although his criticisms of the Church led to the Reformation, he opposed violence and condemned Martin Luther. he wrote The Praise of Folly, worked for Frobein and tr
sir thomas more (1478-1535) Englishman, lawyer, politician, Chancellor for Henry VIII. Wrote Utopia which presented a revolutionary view of society, in which the problems of society were caused by greed. Executed by Henry VIII for not compromising his religious beliefs.
william shakespeare English poet and dramatist considered one of the greatest English writers (1564-1616)
christine de pisan An educated, privelaged, humanistic woman who wrote poetry and "The Treasure of the City of Ladies."
albrecht durer German artist who lived from 1471-1528. Famous for his woodcuts and copper engravings. Influenced by Venetian artists, he was versed in classical teachings and humanism. He was also the first to create printed illustrations in books.
jan van eyck Flemish painter who was a founder of the Flemish school of painting and who pioneered modern techniques of oil painting (1390-1441)
protestant reformation a religious movement of the 16th century that began as an attempt to reform the Roman Catholic Church and resulted in the creation of Protestant churches
indulgences foolish or senseless behavior
martin luther a German monk who became one of the most famous critics of the Roman Catholic Chruch. In 1517, he wrote 95 theses, or statements of belief attacking the church practices.
theocracy a gov. ruled by relegious leaders who claim gods authority
john calvin Swiss theologian (born in France) whose tenets (predestination and the irresistibility of grace and justification by faith) defined Presbyterianism (1509-1564)
predestination Calvin's religious theory that God has already planned out a person's life.
henry vlll English king who created the Church of England after the Pope refused to annul his marriage (divorce with Church approval)
annulled declared invalid based on church laws
elizabeth l Queen of England from 1558 to 1603
counter-reformation the reaction of the Roman Catholic Church to the Reformation reaffirming the veneration of saints and the authority of the Pope (to which Protestants objected)
jesuits Also known as the Society of Jesus; founded by Ignatius Loyola (1491-1556) as a teaching and missionary order to resist the spread of Protestantism.
ignatius of loyola Spaniard and Roman Catholic theologian and founder of the Society of Jesus
council of trent an ecumenical council of the Roman Catholic Church convened in Trento in three sessions between 1545 and 1563 in response to the Reformation
charles borromeo Archbishop of Milan who wanted better education for priests
francis of sales French missionary who returned the French district of Savoy to the Catholic church and founded a religious teaching order for women
teresa of avila (1515-1582) Spanish Carmelite nun and one of the principal saints of the Roman Catholic Church; she reformed the Carmelite order. Her fervor for the Catholic Church proved inspiring for many people during the Reformation period.
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