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Biochemistry

Biochemistry Vocabulary

TermDefinition
Biochemistry The branch science concerned with the chemical and physicochemical processes that occur within living organisms.
Element A part or aspect of something abstract, especially one that is essential or characteristic
compound A thing that is composed of two or more separate elements.
Organic Compound An organic compound is any member of a large class of gaseous, liquid, or solid chemical compounds whose molecules contain carbon.
Inorganic Compounds Organic compound can be defined as any compound that is not organic compound.
Carbohydrates They contain hydrogen and oxygen in the same ratio as water (2:1) and typically can be broken down to release energy in the animal body.
Lipids Is a organic compounds that are fatty acids or their derivatives and are insoluble in water but soluble in organic solvents.
proteins Any of a class of nitrogenous organic compounds that consist of large molecules composed of one or more long chains of amino acids and are an essential part of all living organisms.
Enzymes Any of a class of nitrogenous organic compounds that consist of large molecules composed of one or more long chains of amino acids and are an essential part of all living organisms.
Nucleic Acids Is a complex organic substance present in living cells, especially DNA or RNA, whose molecules consist of many nucleotides linked in a long chain.
Hydrolysis The chemical breakdown of a compound due to reaction with water.
Synthesis Combination or composition, in particular.
PH PH is a measure of hydrogen ion concentration, a measure of the acidity or alkalinity of a solution.
Alimentary Canal The whole passage along which food passes through the body from mouth to anus.
Anus The opening at the end of the alimentary canal through solid waste matter leaves the body.
Appendicitis Appendicitis is an inflamation of the appendix , a 3/2 -inch long tube of fissue that extends from the large intestine.
Appendix A tube attached to and opening into the lower end humans and some other mammals.
Bile A bitter greenish fluid that acids digestion and is secreted by the liver and stored in the gall bladder.
Chemical digestion The process in the alimentary canal by which food is broken up physically as by the action of the teeth and chemically as by the action of enzymes.
Chyme The pulpy acidic fluid passes from the stomach to the small intestine consisting of gastric juices and party digested food.
Colon A colon used in various technical and formulaic a list of items contexts, for example a statement of proportion between two numbers or to separate hours from minutes.
Constipation A condition in which there is difficulty in emptying the bowls usually associated with hardened faces.
Diarrhea Diarrhea is loose, watery stools.
Esophagus The part of the alimentary canal that connects the stomach the gullet.
Feces Waste matter discharged from the bowels after food has been digested, excrement.
Gallbladder The small sac-shaped organ beneath the liver, in which bile is stored after secretion by the liver and before release into the testine.
Gastric juice A thin clear virtually colorless acid fluid secreted by the stomach glands and active in promoting digestion.
Hydrochloric acid A strongly acidic solution of the gas hydrogen chloride in water.
Large intestine The colon and rectum collectively.
Lipases Fats (lipids)are one of the three major food groups needed for proper nutrition lipase is the digestive enzymes needed to digest fat.
Liver A enlarged liver is one that is bigger than normal.
Mechanical digestion There are two kinds of digestion involves physically braking the food into smaller pieces.
Mucus A slimy substance, typically not miscible with water.
Oral cavity The part of the mouth behind the gums and teeth that is bounded above by the hard and soft palates and below by the tongue and by the mucous membrane connecting it with the inner part of the mandible.
Pancreas A large gland behind the stomach that secretes digestive enzymes into the duodenum
Pepsin The chief digestive enzyme in the stomach, which breaks down proteins into polypeptides
Peristalsis The involuntary constriction and relaxation of the muscles of the intestine or another canal, creating wavelike movements that push the contents of the canal forward.
Ptyalin A form of amylase found in the saliva of humans and some other animals.
Rectum The final section of the large intestine, terminating at the anus.
Rennin An enzyme secreted into the stomach of unweaned mammals, and in some lower animals and plants, causing the curdling of milk.
Saliva Watery liquid secreted into the mouth by glands, providing lubrication for chewing and swallowing, and aiding digestion.
Salivary glands They all secrete saliva into your mouth, the parotid through tubes that drain saliva, called salivary ducts.
Small intestine The small intestine is the part of the intestines where 90% of the digestion and absorption .of food occurs, the other 10% taking place in the stomach and large intestine
Stomach The internal organ in which the major part of the digestion of food occurs, being (in humans and many mammals) a pear-shaped enlargement of the alimentary canal linking the esophagus to the small intestine.
Ulcer An open sore on an external or internal surface of the body, caused by a break in the skin or mucous membrane that fails to heal.
Villi We've already stated that the small intestine's main job is to absorb nutrients from the food you eat and that your villi help by increasing the surface area the intestine has for absorption.
Created by: ArgelinoRamos