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Lecture 15: Comp Phy

Lecture 1 Comparative Physiology USD Fall 2018 Dr. Kenneth Renner

What is the pump system of the circulatory system in vertebrates? heart
What is the most common type of pump system in the vertebral circulatory system? single heart
What is hte pump system of the circulatory system in invertebrates? heart
What is the difference between vertebrate and invertebrate circulatory system pumps? the most common type of pump is a single heart in vertebrates but invertebrates most commonly have one or multiple
What is the delivery system for both vertebrate and invertebrate circulatory systems? arteries
What is the transfer system of the circulatory system in vertebrates? capillaries
What is the transfer system of the circulatory system in invertebrates? hemocoel
What is a hemocoel? open fluid space similar to a cavity
What is the return system of the circuatory system in vertebrates? veins
What is the return system of the circulatory system in invertebrates? ostia in the heart
What is an ostia? openings in th heart that allow blood to return
Do open circuit systems have high or low arterial pressures? low
Do open circuit systems have strong or weak control of elocity and distribution of blood flow? weak
Do open circuit systems have high or low capability of gas exchange? low
What is movement of fluid predominantly done through in open circuit systems? body movement and muscle contraitons
What do many invertebrates have to help with blood movement in high demand areas? auxillary hearts
How do arthropod hearts vary with the open circuit system? hearts are located dorsally and they contain ostia for return blood
How do insect hearts vary with the open circuit system? they have a tracheal system that functions for domininant gas exchange organ and blood used for nutrient/waste exchange
What provides directionality in insect hearts? septum
How do crustacean hearts vary with the open circuit system? they ave a chambered heart, aorta, and arteries that branch and empty into more localized spaces (lacunae)
What directs blood in crustacean hearts? sinuses
What are lacunae in crustacean hearts? more localized spaces than hemocoels in open circuit systems
What is the general make up of a closed circuit system? blood is enclosed in tube or blood vessels
What is the order of transfer in closed circuit systems? arteries, arterioles, capillaries, venules, veins
Where are closed circuit systems often found? vertebrates and cephalopods
What is the first advantage of a closed circuit system? less body space devoted to circulatory system
What is the second advantage of a closed circuit system? pumping heart mechanisms creates high pressure
What is the third advantage of a closed circuit system? cappilaries allow gas exchange by diffusion
What must happen to minimize distance from capillaries to cells? capillaries must be highly branched
What is the fourth advantage of a closed circuit system? the option for redistribution of blood flow by increasing or decreasing flow to capillaries is possible
What is the fifth advantage of a closed circuit system? high exchange rates
What is the prototype vertebrate heart a resemblance of? nearly straight tube with 4 chambers
How do the chambers contract in the prototype vertebrate heart? in sequence
What is the first chamber in the prototype heart? sinus venosus
What is a characteristic of the sinus venosus? very thin walled
What is the common cardinal vein? a vein in the prototype heart that just needs enough pressure to pump to sinus venos into the atria
What is the second chamber of the prototype heart? atria
What is the valve between the sinus venosus and the atria in the prototype heart? sinoatrial valve
What is the third chamber of the prototype heart? ventricle
What is the valve between the atria and the ventricle in the prototype heart? atrioventricular valve
What is the fourth chamber of the prototype heart? aorta
How does blood go from the ventricle to the aorta in the prototype heart? truncus arteriosus
What is the truncus arteriosus? a series of semilunar valves that prevent back flow when the heart is diastole
What is the characteristic of the ventricle of the prototype heart? high pressure pump with thick, muscular walls
Summarize the general function of the prototype heart 4 chambers contract in sequence and deliver deoxygeneated blood in a single stream forward towards the gills for gas exchange
What is a counter current system? a system of gas exchange where there is always lower O2 in the blood than in the water. The blood and water flow in opposite directions and the concentration gradient then favors O2 delivery from water to blood
What uses counter current systems? gills that function as exchange organ
What animal is considered to be the transition from water to air respiration? the air-breating lung-fish (dipnoi)
When do dipnoi (lung fish) use air respiration? when environmental conditions when water is stagnant in drought conditions
What is the only artery that pumps deoxygenated blood? the pulmonary artery
What is the only vein that pumps oxygenate blood? the pulmonary vein
What do veins usually carry? deoxygenated blood
What do arteries usually carry? oxygenated blood
What recieves blood from all parts of the body except lungs? the right atria
What three veins provide blood to the right atria? superior vena cava, inferior vena cava, and coronary sinus
What does the right atria pumb blood across? the tricuspid valve
Where does blood go after the right atrium? to the right ventricle
Where does blood from the right ventricle go? across pulmonary semilunar valve to right and left pulmonary arteries
What do the pulmonary arteries carry? deoxygenated blood to the lungs
Where does blood go after the lungs? to the left atria
How does blood go from the lungs to the left atria? 4 pulmonary veins carry oxygenated blood
Where does blood go after the left atrium? to the left ventricle
Where does blood go after the left ventricle? to the aorta
How does blood go from the left atrium to the left ventricle? bicuspid valve
How does blood get from the left ventricle to the aorta? aortic semilunar valve
How many valves does the mammalian heart have? 4 unidirectional valves
What is the high pressure side of the heart? the left side
What is the mitral valve? bicuspid valve between the left atrium and the left ventricule
What is the tricuspid valve? atroventricule valve between the right atrium and left ventricule
Created by: kenzigustafson
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